Dissertações/Teses

Clique aqui para acessar os arquivos diretamente da Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da UEMA

2024
Descrição
  • DIEGO ARMANDO DE SOUSA PAZ
  • FRONTIER ECONOMY AND THE TERRITORIALIZATION OF AGROFORESTRY CAPITAL IN MUNICIPALITIES OF THE IMMEDIATE GEOGRAPHIC REGION OF AÇAILÂNDIA, MARANHÃO, BRAZIL

  • Data: 04/03/2024
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  • The implementation of eucalyptus forestry in Maranhão and, consequently, in the Immediate Geographic Region of Açailândia, is directly related to the Grande Carajás Project (PGC), initiated by the then Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) in the 1980s. This project, along with the creation of the Carajás Railroad (EFC), which connects Parauapebas, Pará, to the Itaqui Port, in São Luís, Maranhão, stimulated projects to produce pig iron in Açailândia, where eucalyptus was used as an energy input. However, it was in 2008, with the formalization of the Suzano Pulp and Paper industry, located in Imperatriz, Maranhão, that the eucalyptus areas in the region assumed large proportions, becoming the main raw material for pulp production. Thus, the general objective of this research is to understand the process of territorialization of agroforestry capital on land use in eucalyptus producing municipalities in the Immediate Geographic Region of Açailândia. Methodologically, it uses as spatial cut the Immediate Geographic Region of Açailândia, located in the western portion of the state of Maranhão. The research in question is structured in two stages. The first corresponds to the bibliographical research and the theoretical foundation, using authors such as Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, Bertha Becker and David Harvey. In addition, it systematizes and analyzes secondary data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), Brazilian Tree Industry (IBÁ) and Ministry of Development, Industry, Commerce and Services (MDIC). The second stage, in addition to the literature review, includes the systematization of primary data obtained in field studies in eucalyptus producing farms and nearby communities. It also analyzes secondary data from sources such as the National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA), IBGE, IBÁ, MDIC and Suzano Pulp and Paper. The results indicate that the territorialization of the agroforestry capital of eucalyptus in the Immediate Geographic Region of Açailândia has transformed the agrarian space, and this is reflected not only in changes in the vegetation cover of vast areas altered by monocultures, but also affects traditional aspects of the field, such as land uses related to traditional agricultural practices in the region, in addition to aggravating the process of land concentration on the site.

  • ELIZABETH PESSANHA SILVA

  • Data: 31/01/2024
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  • Esta disertación tiene por objetivo analizar la producción del espacio del barrio Jardim Renascença II, uno de los barrios más valorizados de São Luís-MA, a partir de su infraestructura urbana con la intención de identificar como este se inserta a la lógica del emprendimiento urbano que favorece los intereses del sector inmobiliario. En esta perspectiva, iniciamos por una análisis que buscó identificar mediante la planificación urbana los procesos que configuraron la ciudad a partir de la intensificación del proceso de urbanización, acontecido a partir de la segunda mitad do siglo XX, con el objetivo de identificar los agentes y las acciones que repercutieron en el área que hoy corresponde al barrio Renascença II; fue realizada una caracterización de la infraestructura urbana del barrio considerando su morfología y sus sistemas técnicos a partir de un recorte metodológico que se dividió en tres ejes: el sistema viario, la oferta de servicios y equipamientos colectivos urbanos y saneamiento básico; por fin, se buscó comprender como la concepción ideológica del emprendimiento urbano se reifica en el Renascença II a partir de la infraestructura urbana de que dispone y la forma como esta favorece la actuación del capital inmobiliario. La investigación fue desarrollada considerando los siguientes procedimientos técnicos: investigación bibliográfica, investigación documental, levantamiento de datos y trabajo de campo, ancorados bajo la perspectiva del materialismo histórico-dialéctico. Así, del punto de vista del enfoque del problema de la investigación esta puede ser considerada mixta, ya que contó con un enfoque cualitativo hecho bajo el empuje de las relaciones, procesos i fenómenos que no pueden ser calculados a partir apenas de variables cuantificables, pero, también se utilizó del abordaje cuantitativo, mediante datos que aportaron informaciones de la medición de les fenómenos analizados. Con el desarrollo de la investigación fue posible identificar a los agentes que produjeron el espacio urbano de São Luís en el período observado de entre los cuales se puede destacar el Estado, en sus tres esferas, y los promotores inmobiliarios. Se identificó que estos agentes actuaron a partir de cuatro vectores que contribuyeron para la producción del espacio en la ciudad: la ampliación del sistema viario, los programas de habitación, la modernización del campo y la reestructuración productiva. El análisis hecho bajo la perspectiva del planeamiento de la ciudad permitió constatar que el Renascença II siempre fue reconocido como un barrio con tendencia a la valorización como consecuencia de su localización y “calidad urbanística”, es decir, por estar próximo al litoral de la ciudad y poseer buenas condiciones de infraestructura. Quedó evidente que esta perspectiva de reconocimiento del Renascença refleja la lógica del emprendimiento urbano, del planeamiento estratégico, al cual el barrio fue sometido a lo largo del tiempo y que lo posicionó en ventaja ubicacional como resultado de su infraestructura urbana. La análisis descriptiva de la infraestructura y de algunos de los emprendimientos inmobiliarios permitió aclarar como la localización y las infraestructuras físicas y sociales del Renascença II favorecen la atracción de las inversiones de las empresas del capital inmobiliario en el ramo de la construcción civil y como estas actividades económicas demandan más inversiones en infraestructura urbana que, por al mismo tiempo, valoriza todavía más al barrio y atrae nuevos emprendimientos inmobiliarios (residenciales y comerciales). En definitiva, todo este movimiento en torno de las actividades que se desarrollan en el barrio promueve un ciclo de (re)producción del espacio del Renascença II.

  • GABRIEL IRVINE FERREIRA ALVES DOS SANTOS
  • ANALYSIS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN THE PINDARÉ RIVER WATERSHED - MA

  • Orientador : JOSE FERNANDO RODRIGUES BEZERRA
  • Data: 11/04/2024
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  • Rivers play an essential role in sustaining life and balancing Geosystems. Within the field of fluvial geomorphology, morphometric analysis is responsible for determining and evaluating the components of drainage networks of drainage basins. This specialty is based on the analytical method, which considers and characterizes the set of slopes and channels belonging to the relief. From this perspective, measurements of these variables form the basis for composing morphometric parameters. The aim of this research is to analyze the morphometric characteristics of the Pindaré River drainage basin, located in the central-western portion of the state of Maranhão. To achieve this, the methodological approach consisted of: gathering and analyzing bibliographic material; creating a cartographic base in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment, ArcGIS®, version 10.2.2 from the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), and fieldwork. Thus, the parameters adopted were based on classical literature by Horton (1945), Strahler (1952), Miller (1953), Schumm (1956), Christofoletti (1980), Alves and Castro (2003), such as: area, perimeter, drainage network, number of channels, total channel length, maximum basin altitude, altimetric range of the basin, main channel length, axial length of the main channel, slope, drainage density, hydrographic density, maintenance coefficient, and shape index. In light of this, the results indicate that the main springs of the Pindaré River are located in the cities of Montes Altos and Amarante do Maranhão, within the Krikati Indigenous Land. At an altitude of 371 m, its drainage presents a dendritic pattern of 6th order hierarchy, according to Strahler's classification (1952), with a regular drainage density of 0.53 km/km² and a hydrographic density of 0.114 km/km². Furthermore, the Pindaré drainage basin demonstrated a strong influence of structural control, where rivers flow through structural elements and geological faults. Despite this, its main channel proved to be predominantly straight with a sinuosity index result of 1.57 and the presence of well-defined meanders restricted to the lower course. It was found that the main river runs approximately 466.3 km to its mouth, with a total drainage area of 40,280 km². Moreover, the circularity index of 0.39 and shape factor of 0.21 reinforce low susceptibility to floods under normal rainfall conditions. The study area is predominantly characterized by the geological unit of the Itapecuru Group. As for the highlighted geomorphological class, it is the Dissected Plateaus, and in terms of pedological characteristics, the predominant soil type is Dystrophic Red Yellow Argisol. This work aims to encourage the implementation of future measures to preserve and maintain riparian forests and surface water resources.

  • JUCIANA DA CONCEICAO BIRINO DE SOUZA
  • LAND USE AND COVER WITH INCIDENCE OF FIRES IN THE GURUPI BIOLOGICAL RESERVE BETWEEN 1985 AND 2020

  • Orientador : SWANNI TATIANA ALVARADO ROMERO
  • Data: 20/02/2024
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  • This research presents the partial results developed throughout the years 2022 and the first semester of 2023. Its general goal is to understand the behavior of land use and land cover in the Gurupi Biological Reserve (REBIO) across time, from 1985 to 2020. It seeks to analyze quantitatively and qualitatively the spatial distributions of land use and land cover, verifying through the reconstruction of the data of burned areas available in MAPBIOMAS, the incidence of fire over the 35 years. In addition, the carbon balance between the regeneration, deforestation and burning classes will be analyzed both within the REBIO and in the 10 km buffer zone proposed by the reserve's Management Plan. So far, the quantitative data showed that the Forest Formation class has decreased around 8,29% since 1985, with a greater decrease between the years 2000 and 2005, a period in which the Pasture class increased. These data contributed to the analysis of deforestation and regeneration of the REBIO, clarifying the ecological and social relevance of the reserve, but which lives under conflicts between environmental and agrarian reform agencies, due to existing occupations even before it received the title of Biological Reserve. Some interviews with institutional and social leaders were applied, in order to assist in the interpretation of quantitative data that reflects the reality faced by the region over the years. The next step will consist of the survey of fires and biomass to perform the carbon balance by area that will be presented in the final work. Thus, the research is relevant to bring to light the current scenario of a protected area in the face of the expansion of human activities, and can serve as a subsidy for future scientific research that discusses the protection of the Amazon biome, assisting in the elaboration of interventionist policies for the state of Maranhão.

  • LUCIANO ARANHA ANDRADE
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    Environmental impacts of the red ceramic industry in Itapecuru-Mirim/MA


  • Orientador : JOSE FERNANDO RODRIGUES BEZERRA
  • Data: 23/02/2024
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  • Minerals play an essential role for humanity and the mining industry is recognized as a driver of economic development, as minerals are indispensable natural resources that provide raw materials for various industries. Clay, from ancient civilizations such as Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Middle East to Roman and Islamic cultures, is the primary mineral in the production of red ceramics. Ceramic products made from clay, such as bricks and tiles, are now widely used due to their quality and resistance. Clay extraction, which is often carried out with backhoes, changes the landscape where it takes place, which has a number of environmental impacts. In Brazil, the red ceramics industry is traditional and produces around 63.6 billion pieces every year with a consumption of approximately 140 megatons of clay. In the municipality of Itapecuru-Mirim/MA, 21 companies stand out in the mining and production of red ceramics, with millions of pieces per month, making it one of the largest producers in the state. The aim of this research is to analyze the red ceramics industry in the above-mentioned municipality, with a view to balancing the development of economic activity with the maintenance of natural resources and proposing measures to mitigate the related impacts, based on the relationship established from the Geosystem and the mapping carried out, as well as field activities. It was found that the impacts include deforestation without reforestation, degradation of springs, degradation of drainage by artificial lakes, degradation of water bodies and permanent preservation areas, potential for the development of respiratory diseases, corruption and lack of oversight. There is also a history of appropriation of public land, underreporting of the amount produced in order to pay less compensation tax, continued deforestation in other areas not previously delimited, the lack of chimney filters and the illegal use of electricity. A scenario of degradation was observed that significantly interferes with the dynamics of the natural environment in the locality in question, making it necessary to strengthen public inspection bodies and environmental management in companies.

  • MARCOS VINICIUS LIMA DE SOUSA
  • LAND USE AND LAND COVER CONFLICTS IN THE MARANHENSE AMAZON: a multitemporal analysis from 1985 to 2020

  • Orientador : SILAS NOGUEIRA DE MELO
  • Data: 27/02/2024
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  • This work focuses on the study area of the Maranhense Amazon, which has been undergoing an environmental degradation process caused by wood extraction, clearcutting, opening of agricultural areas, establishment of pastures, and reforestation, such as monoculture of eucalyptus. The general objective of this study is to understand the conflicts of land use and land cover in the Maranhense Amazon during the years 1985 to 2020, identifying the spatial information on land use and land cover available in MapBiomas (Collection 7) during the years 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. Additionally, the study aims to analyze the main legal protections related to environmental protection areas and land use allocation currently in force in the Maranhense Amazon and to conduct a case study to evaluate the effectiveness of protection units in two planning regions contained in the Maranhense Amazon. The methodology adopted involved qualitative and quantitative approaches, which were fundamental in data collection through the use of geotechnologies, remote sensing, analysis of covariance (ANCOVAS), and bibliographic references. The results indicated that the main dynamics of land use and land cover change in the region involve the transition from Forest Formation to Pasture. Forest Formation is the native vegetation cover in the region and has been declining during the years studied, reaching its lowest percentage in 2015, the first year when it became inferior to Pasture. In contrast, the Pasture class has been growing in all years studied. Moreover, the analysis of legal instruments for environmental protection revealed that, although there are laws and regulations aimed at conserving biodiversity and natural resources in the Maranhense Amazon, the effectiveness of these measures is often challenged by the lack of adequate oversight, absence of integrated planning, and conflicts of interest among different sectors. This is the case of the planning regions of Baixo Munim and Pindaré, two areas contained in the Maranhense Amazon that present different degrees of protection. The results showed that while the Baixo Munim region did not present significant percentage variations in land use classes over the years due to its high degree of protection (91.3%), the Pindaré region, which has a low degree of protection, showed a decrease in forest formation due to an increase in pastures.

  • THAYRLAN SILVA SOUZA
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    ENVIRONMENTAL VULNERABILITY OF THE PINDARÉ RIVER WATER BASIN – MA

  • Orientador : LUIZ CARLOS ARAUJO DOS SANTOS
  • Data: 20/03/2024
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  • This research aims to analyze environmental vulnerability in the Pindaré river basin – MA, considering the use and land cover there between the years 1991 to 2021. To achieve the proposed objective, bibliographic research was carried out; selection of cartographic bases; application of geoprocessing techniques to produce thematic maps, using a scale of 1:250,000; and the use of the QGIS Geographic Information System. As a methodological path, we used Crepani et. al. (2001) to obtain vulnerability factors, where the different degrees of vulnerability prevalent in the Pindaré river basin were assessed, based on three types of environments considered as environmental units, namely: stable environments, in which pedogenesis prevails ; intergrade environments, in which there is a balance between pedogenesis and morphogenesis; and those that are highly unstable, in which morphogenesis predominates. The final results made it possible to identify that regarding the stable aspects of the Pindaré river basin, the watercourses and areas located in the southern part of the basin, where well-developed soils were identified, with the presence of remaining vegetation cover, low rate of erosive potential energy of the relief, in addition to, for the most part, stable levels of rainfall intensity, correspond to environments with the occurrence of the pedogenesis process. As for the landscape units considered vulnerable, the greatest predominance was found in the north of the basin, with the presence of the lithostratigraphic units Alluvial Deposits, Wetland and Mangrove Deposits and Fluvio-lagoon Deposits, characterizing, in addition to the presence of poorly developed soils, also an intense process of water retention and difficulties in surface runoff, such as the multiple classes of plintosols. In the central areas of the basin, high levels of potential erosive energy of the relief were identified, in relation to declivity and horizontal and vertical dissections, in addition to high variations in rainfall intensity in 1991. Furthermore, the use and cover of the land demonstrated is intense in these regions, covering mainly pasture and monocultures, damaging the natural vegetation cover. Finally, the Pindaré river basin presented multiple processes of modification of its landscape units, which are more stable in the south, intergrade in the center and vulnerable in the north. Such information is encouraged in view of the growing process of agricultural and urban development in the region in the last thirty years, in addition to the unrestrained use of natural resources and suppression of vegetation, activities that contribute to the growing state of environmental vulnerability in the area, providing each increasingly scenarios of catastrophic events for the environmental characteristics of the Pindaré river basin.

  • VALDENE CARDOSO FARIA PEREIRA
  • INFLUENCE OF PRISON ARCHITECTURE ON THE PHENOMENON OF TERRITORIALIZATION IN THE SÃO LUÍS-MA PENITENTIARY COMPLEX.
  • Orientador : SILAS NOGUEIRA DE MELO
  • Data: 27/06/2024
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  • Prison architecture plays an important role in territorialization in the prison environment, involving the dispute and negotiation of power, the creation of collective identity and the manifestation of dominance relationships. This constant process is related to the way prisoners relate to the space around them and how they defend their territorial limits. The organization of prisons can directly influence territorialization, encouraging or discouraging the formation of territorial groups. The territorialization of prison space has implications for criminal sociology, which studies the relationship between crime and social factors in a society, and prison geography – an emerging and vibrant field of geography research, which provides perspectives for understanding the social and spatial processes involved in the prison environment. Prisoners try to establish strategies to create their own dynamics inside and outside penitentiary institutions through territorialization. The study in question sought to analyze how the architecture of prisons influences the process of territorialization in the penitentiary complex of São Luís - MA, within a criminal sociological perspective. This was a qualitative research study and its investigative techniques included semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, participant observation, document and bibliographic analysis. Ten employees of the Criminal Justice System were interviewed and five inmates from UPSL 4, who were linked to the São Luís penitentiary complex from 2013 to 2014. These practices resulted in an informal hierarchy among inmates, where some exercised control over others, often violently. The power dynamics in the prison space highlighted the fragility of the penitentiary system in guaranteeing the safety and integrity of inmates, in addition to revealing the inability of the State to fulfill its role of rehabilitation and resocialization of prisoners, reinforced by the prison architecture that did not fulfill its purpose. desired.

  • VINÍCIUS CASTELO BRANCO DE AGUIAR
  • POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE CITY AND DIGITALIZATION IN SÃO LUÍS: the platformization of food delivery services

  • Orientador : CRISTIANO NUNES ALVES
  • Data: 13/05/2024
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  • Platformization stems from the intense digitalization of space and is one of the features of today's world. In view of this, these phenomena have been assimilated in this research through a movement of method: from the world-system to the geographical situations of the city. In order to discuss the uses of territory and the political economy of the city (Santos, 2012 [1994]), this work analyzed the operation of platform companies in the food delivery segment in an empirical section in the city of São Luís. The research was particularly interested in the work carried out by couriers registered on the iFood platform and in local establishments that use these services in the city. It also sought to discuss iFood 's hegemonic status in São Luís, and how the territory welcomes and reacts to this company's designs. The general objective was to analyse the dynamics of the city's political economy based on the digitalization of the territory and the platformization of food delivery services in São Luís - MA. As for the specific objectives, we sought to answer four of them, listed as follows: i) contextualize the territorial diffusion of the digitalization and platformization of food delivery services, using an approach that includes the world-system and the political economy of the city; ii) to emphasize the operation of iFood in the national territory and in geographical situations in São Luís, through its territorial links in the context of the platformization of delivery services; iii) to identify in the political economy of the city the territorial dynamics of work and the forms of organization and cooperation of delivery workers by platform and; iv) to characterize the performance of Digital Menu Platform companies and the use of Own Order Platforms in establishments in the city of São Luís. In its methodological procedures, the work resorted to a bibliographic survey and data and information on the proposed theme; the use of mixed methodologies, such as field observation, interviews and questionnaires; the organization of the results was done through maps, figures, tables, charts, graphs and the use of photographs. As a result, we learned aspects related to the work of delivery workers in their forms of organization and dynamization in the city. We also discussed the role of the Digital Menu Platform companies, Anota AI and MenuDino, and the Own Order Platform companies, CCM Pedido Online and Neemo Delivery App, in the midst of adherence and resistance to iFood's interests in selected areas of São Luís.

  • WALBER DA SILVA PEREIRA FILHO
  • PAISAGEM URBANA NO CENTRO HISTÓRICO DE SÃO LUÍS (MARANHÃO): uma análise de conteúdo  a partir da netnográfia em meios de comunicação.

  • Data: 08/04/2024
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  • Landscape is one of the categories of analysis in geographic science, therefore, it is essential to understand, through netnographic content, how the media (more specifically the newspapers in the city of São Luís) report through materials published virtually the evolution of the landscape through geographical approaches regarding different environmental factors, in the territory of the historic center of São Luís (Maranhão), a UNESCO world heritage site. In this way, the objective is to analyze the evolution of the urban landscape of the historic center of São Luís (Maranhão), through netnographic content analysis through reports published on three different local communication portals: “O Imparcial”, “Imirante. com” and “Jornal Pequeno”, between the periods of 2020 and 2022. The methodological approach taken takes into account bibliographic and documentary research, in addition to characterizing it as exploratory and descriptive research. As for the qualitative analysis of the identified reports, pre-defined keywords were adopted to map the reports on news portals, thus creating a database that was analyzed using the free software “IRaMuTeQ”. The first results indicate that the historic center of São Luís presents several problems, the most cited and found in the sources above being the infrastructure problems of the mansions, with the absence of private initiative recurring, causing serious problems in the landscape of the historic center. Over the last two years, the urban landscape in the historic center of São Luís has been incorporating new approaches and forms, mainly caused by public preservation and tourism policies, which gained strength in the 70s and 2000s, enabling a landscape change mainly in the UNESCO recognition area

2023
Descrição
  • ALEX DA SILVA PEREIRA
  • RELIGIOUS AND FESTIVE LANDSCAPE OF OUR LADY MOTHER OF MEN, JUÇATUBA, SÃO JOSÉ DE RIBAMAR/MA - A QUILOMBOLA TERRITORY.

  • Data: 25/05/2023
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  • This research aims to interpret the religious landscape of the celebration of Our Lady Mother of Men, in the quilombola territory of Juçatuba, São José de Ribamar, Maranhão. In this attempt, the approach that follows is based on the theoretical-methodological paths of Cultural Geography, with emphasis on the Geography of Religion. The landscape of the celebration, in such a way, emerges problematized from various layers of meanings, and taking into account the experiences and field experiences achieved in the twelve days of celebration each year accompanied (2021 and 2022). In these circumstances, seeking phenomenological approximations (DARDEL, 2011), we adopted ethnogeographical practices as a methodology (CLAVAL, 1999), when we delve into the life of the community at parties as a salutary procedure to capture the feeling of communitas (TURNER, 1974) between those people, now that we understand from the first observations we made in that reality. The feeling in question seems to us to be the great driving force behind the landscape of the feast of Our Lady Mother of Men, in Juçatuba, a remaining quilombola community that, from generation to generation, a phenomenon related to ancestry, learns, apprehends and reproduces religious culture on screen.

     

  • DINAZILDA MENDES SILVA
  • ANALYSIS OF THE HYDRODYNAMICS OF THE ITAPECURU RIVER IN THE PERIURBAN AREA OF COLINAS-MA

  • Orientador : QUÉSIA DUARTE DA SILVA
  • Data: 23/10/2023
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  • The present work aimed to analyze the hydrodynamics (bottom sediments and flow), the morphological features of the Itapecuru river and the uses and land cover in the peri-urban area of the municipality of Colinas – MA. The methodological steps were operationalized with desk work, field work in two periods: dry (October/2021) and rainy (March/2022) and laboratory analyses. The land use and cover maps were created using the MapBiomas database. In the present study, the Geographic Information System (GIS) was used. To analyze the morphological features present in the river corridor, mappings were carried out based on orbital images from two periods, July 2011 and July 2021 available in the Google Earth Pro Software and subsequent confirmation of the information through field activity in October 2021. bathymetry monitoring (width and depth of the channel) used the GARMIN echomap 50s echo sounder. To measure the flow speed, a fluviometric windlass, model MLN 7 – 200.09.15, was used. To collect bottom sediments, a Van Veentype dredger (jaw dial) was used. The samples were dried in the model TE – 394/2 oven and the sieving process took place using an electromagnetic stirrer. Different types of uses were recorded. The morphological features recorded in 2021 in compartments I, II and III were: eight sediment bars, fourteen flood basins, thirtynine artificial channels and one lake. As for the hydrodynamic behavior, the predominance of fine sand was observed.

  • ERGSON DE SOUSA MORAES
  • SPECIALIZATION AND OVER-EXPLOITATION OF THE WORKFORCE IN PERIPHERAL REGIONS: an analysis based on the timber circuit in the municipality of Nova Esperança do Piriá, Pará, Brazil

  • Data: 19/01/2023
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  • The Amazon has in the spatial circuit of timber production an economic activity of weight in the regressive distribution of income and regional wealth, associated with a growing marginality and exclusion in municipalities that have the timber sector in their economic portfolio. Among these municipalities, we highlight Nova Esperança do Piriá, a municipality in the Northeast of Pará that has in the illegal logging circuit a prominent activity in the local economy, where its operation does not even remotely contribute to dynamize other internal productive segments and improve the quality of life of its population, but which acts incisively in the peripheral regional development in vogue. It was within the scope of the “National Integration Program” (PIN) from the 1960s onwards, via the developmental discourse of the “Amazon Economic Development Project” that the operations of the logging circuit expanded in the scale of action in the Amazon region, starting to operate in integration with other regions and markets, both national and international, cohesive to a logic of Territorial Division of Labor. From these aspects, the operation of several spatial production circuits in the Legal Amazon, among them the logging circuit, starts to operate based on a considerable productive specialization of its workforce. In this way, we seek to understand how the peripheral development in the municipality of Nova Esperança do Piriá-PA takes place, from the spatial circuit of the production of raw sawn wood, in which its operation is based on the primary transformation (deployment of vast stocks of native round wood from the region in rough sawn wood: plank, plank, rafter, plank, beam and batten). This function is contemplated from the existence of a productive structure composed mainly of several sawmills scattered around the edges of the Amazon - this activity being one of the restricted work alternatives in which a considerable mass of subjects in a situation of social vulnerability engage in a precarious way, with: low wages, in a situation of unregulated/precarious work, without the availability of Personal Protective Equipment, in short, inclear aspects of overexploitation of work (long hours, intense work and remuneration below its value) - a situation in which that the intensity of work implies the decrepitude of the physical and mental health of the subjects who work. Thus synthesizing a space in which aspects of dependencies, inequalities, segregation, informality and socio-environmental decrepitude prevail.

  • HENRIQUE COELHO DA SILVA
  • THE AGRARIAN PROBLEM AND THE STRUGGLE FOR LAND IN MARANHÃO: the case of the São Bartolomeu/Luzilândia settlement in Vitorino Freire and Santa Inês

  • Data: 15/03/2023
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  • This research aims at analyzing the territorialization process by the peasant squatters who gave rise to São Bartolomeu/Zulilândia Settlement project in Vitorina Freire and Santa Inês municipalities, in the State of Maranhão. In order to achieve the proposed goal, through bibliographic research, we aim at understanding the scenario of the agrarian problem in the capitalistic national territory, as well as in the State of Maranhão and the microregeon of Pindaré, where the settlement is located, and how this process relates to and culminites in its stablishment. We have conducted field research in which it was possible to engage in a dialogue with workers to better understand their specific reality. The partial results enabled us to perceive that the settlement stablishment happened amidst the struggle for lands and the peasants’ endurance,  with the support from social agents, such as the church and the  STTR (Rural Workers' Union). 27 years since the Settlement stablishment , the peasants' main struggles consist in staying in the land, facing the factors and agents that currently mischaracterize  it, such as the land reconcentration, public policy discontinuity, lack of social workers engagement, poor infrastructure and lack of public service.

  • JOSÉ AGLAILTON DOS SANTOS MONTEIRO
  • THE STUDENTS' VIEW ON THE PINDARÉ RIVER FROM THE ACTION RESEARCH PATH

  • Data: 09/03/2023
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  • Environmental education is a challenge to be faced by all of society, as it promotes awareness, so that we can take better care of the environment where we live, from which we draw various resources and which provides our survival. Therefore, in schools it is necessary to try to reach this understanding, combining theory and practice in the formation of society for a critical conscience for an education that generates action-reflection-action. In this way, a survey was carried out at the Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Maranhão- Up Pindaré with the students of the 1st year Environment course. Having as a generating question: what are the students' perceptions in relation to the impacts generated on the Pindaré River and its surroundings from the perspective of environmental education? The general objective of the research was to understand the perspective of the students through the activities developed during the participant research process, starting from the place Rio Pindaré. The study was methodologically based on a qualitative research approach and with a design based on participant research, showing the view of the research subjects, their perceptions and solutions regarding socio-environmental and cultural issues involving the place and the Pindaré river. The research uses as techniques the use of semi-structured questionnaires, perceptible walking and brainstorming, observing the view of the students on the environmental impacts and their perceptions, their definitions of what would be these impacts and consequences mainly related to the Pindaré river, source of resources for great part of the city's population. As a result, together with the students, several points impacted with solid waste on the banks of the Pindaré River, still present in the squares, pier and fair, were identified, also registering abandoned animals near the river surroundings, highlighting the presence of untreated sewage falling straight into the watercourse. The problems mentioned and observed by the students and the researcher, problems that stem mainly from the anthropic action that different places suffer, which comes to show us that it is necessary to do an environmental education work that works to raise people's awareness, aiming to make them understand that they make part of this environment. From the observations and experiences carried out, the students prepared a podcast, with the perceptions and information collected, inspired by the SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) called: “EcoCast”, so that it can be used in other environmental awareness activities on the environmental impacts studied by this work, and seek to involve other people to help take care of the Pindaré River.

  • JOSY MILENA SOUSA SANTOS
  • SOCIO-SPATIAL INEQUALITIES IN INTERNET ACCESS IN MARANHÃO: dissemination of free Internet and digital inclusion through the WI-FI BRASIL and MARANET Programs

  • Orientador : CARLOS EDUARDO NOBRE
  • Data: 22/09/2023
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  • Currently, the internet is considered the most complete, comprehensive and complex technical communication and information system in the world. With its diffusion, the internet became the essential means of communication for the organization of the productive system, but also for carrying out basic daily activities. With the advent of information and communication technologies, it enabled the expansion of social interaction environments, specifically with regard to education and citizenship. Social networks, multimedia technologies, websites, among other information technology innovations, have made access to information, citizen participation and fundamental education more accessible. However, with computer facilities, a social phenomenon appears: the digital divide. In Brazil, with the spread of COVID-19, inequalities in access to the internet have increased, which puts the poorest, residents of rural areas, quilombola communities, indigenous villages, rural settlements and peripheral areas in urban centers at a disadvantage with in relation to the segments of the population and the areas provided with the necessary equipment to access the network. The objective is to investigate the diffusion of the internet in the State of Maranhão through the free Internet network programs WI-FI BRASIL and MARANET and to understand the geographical implications of this diffusion, as well as to map and discuss the results of these public policies in the diffusion of the Internet in public spaces, institutions and public schools in the municipal network of São Luís, Maranhão, selected for research. Two schools in the municipal education network of São Luís, Maranhão were investigated and the partial results point to a lack of digital technologies in schools. In this sense, we understand that it is essential to guarantee access to the internet to the underprivileged population, and in particular to public school students, generally from low-income social classes, as a condition for guaranteeing the right to information. We start from the assumption that all people have the right to access the internet, so that access to electronically transmitted information must constitute a duty of the State and a social commitment.

  • LUCIANO SILVA GOUVEIA
  • Daily portraits of the place: Experiences, experiences and perceptions of the residents of Aldeias Altas - MA

  • Data: 19/09/2023
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  • The present research aims to interpret the place through the daily experiences, experiences and perceptions of the residents of the city of Aldeias Altas, in Maranhão. In this sense, the paths covered are based on theoretical-methodological discussions of Humanist Geography and on phenomenological and existentialist influences, emphasizing the place, the lived space and the perception of residents amid the different rhythms of everyday life. The city, interpreted as a place, is supported by discussions by Tuan (1983), Relph (2012) and Buttimer (2015), especially valuing the perspective of experience as a basis for building meanings, identities and belonging to places of life. The place in Aldeias Altas is problematized and interpreted from a constitution of the place in tension with the “fabrication”, initiated post-emancipation and the construction process of the city, exalting the subjective and intersubjective experiential relations of the residents with the environment, existence , memories and identities that emerge, as well as the geography and meanings given by the inhabitants, considering the amalgam approach of the body with culture, values, symbols, history and meanings in the maintenance of characteristics and metamorphoses in the lived experience. For that, fieldwork, observations and interviews were carried out, in addition to a documentary survey, based on phenomenological premises and Dardel's (2011) geographicity, allowing interpretations on the different scales of ordinary experience. Thus, based on existence, we performed an interpretation of the place of the residents of Aldeias Altas, exalting processes of tension, historicity and meanings of living in the city throughout its years as emancipated; as well as a conversation between generations and an opportunity to think, reflect and see the portraits of this place/city.

  • POLIANA DOS SANTOS DE CARVALHO
  • TERRITORY OF BENZIMENTOS E CURE OF VILLAGE KM 17, CODÓ MA:  A GEOCULTURAL ANALYSIS

  • Data: 05/04/2023
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  • Act of kindness and faith, blessing, despite all the process of social modernization, remains (re)existing and creating identity marks in various locations, as happens in the Km 17 settlement, Codó, Maranhão, the object of study of this research and here understood as a cultural territory. Intended as a geocultural analysis (BONNEMAISON, 2012), this research aimed to interpret the cultural territory of the blessings and healing of the settlement in question. Combining blessing, faith, and healing, the cultural group formed by benzedores and benzedeiras sustain symbolic territorialities there that denote searches related to physical and spiritual discomforts. The houses we refer to function as ritual spaces in which blessings occur, involving the magical thickness of altars that evoke divinities, as well as backyards and power plants. The results achieved indicate that the territory of blessings and healing in the Km 17 settlement has meaning and function that go beyond the teachings of formal medicine, structuring itself into a kind of popular medicine, thus fulfilling a relevant social role. On the other hand, although recognizing religious prejudice, especially because of the relationship of the settlement with Codó - a city marked by the presence of African matrix religions, misunderstood from a religious point of view - the practitioners of blessings only wish to continue with their customs, maintaining their secret coexistences with their healing territories, invisibilized by some, but essentially lived by them: an experience that entails hidden forces, as humbly revealed to us by the benzedor, the benzedeira.

  • RICARDO EVERTON LIMA
  • THE FRONTS OF (DIS)ARTICULATION AND RESISTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS AGAINST THE ADVANCE OF REAL ESTATE SPECULATION: study of the Mercês district, Paço do Lumiar – MA.

  • Data: 27/02/2023
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  • The development of this research aims to analyze the forms of organization of the productive space of the farmers in front of the real estate speculation of the Mercês neighborhood, Paço do Lumiar - MA. The choice of location was due to the fact that it has an important history of family agricultural production, with outstanding supply to the ludovicense consumer market, and, over the last few years, it has been suffering from a territorial reduction, which directly impacts on social, cultural rites. and economic benefits of the neighborhood's residents. The understanding of this urban advance on the rural residues of the Island of Maranhão, goes through the analysis of the urban explosion that occurred in São Luís - MA from the 1960s, which led to its urban limits merged with the limits of the neighboring municipalities of São Luís. Paço do Lumiar and São José de Ribamar. The proximity between the mentioned municipalities made the real estate industry use the Luminense and Ribamarense territories for the implementation of several residential condominiums, largely to serve the population of the state capital, where three of them were located on Mercês, which generated several damages to the environment, emphasizing the silting and pollution of the Mercês River, the main water supplier for the population and agricultural production of that place. For the displacement of this dissertation study, we opted for the use of Dialectical Historical Materialism, we understand that it will subsidize us in the complex contradictory analysis between rural and urban that involves the Mercês territory.

  • THIAGO HENRIQUE ARAUJO DE MORAIS
  • THE SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS CAUSED BY THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY: A case study of the Salinas community in the municipality of Ribeira do Piauí.

  • Data: 28/09/2023
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  • Given its favorable natural characteristics and governmental incentives, Piauí has become a major attractive center for investments related to solar energy production, and foreign companies began to favor this state to develop and finance these activities. Celeo Redes Brasil, which has a working solar park in São João do Piauí, is working on the construction of a new one, with an investment of approximately 1.5 billion Brazilian reais. Ibitu Energia opened the Caldeirão Grande 2 solar park in April 2023, in the municipality of Caldeirão Grande, with an installed production capacity of 252 MW, and an investment of 816 million reais. All these investments have been bringing visibility to the State of Piauí, however, it is necessary to discuss how the installation and development of these projects are being carried out, and whether governmental inspections are taking place, especially regarding the limits of fauna and flora, as well as the quality of life of the local community, as these are the people who live directly with the changes caused by the arrival of these ventures. In the implementation and operation of a solar park, the landscape can be compromised, with considerable loss of vegetation cover, generating considerable impacts on local ecosystems, modifying the fauna and flora development cycles. Another problem that can be observed is related to the physical and social structure of the cities that receive these investments, usually small towns, which face a series of urban and social problems, which can be intensified with the arrival of these solar parks. This research addresses the landscape category through a case study of solar energy production in the municipality of Ribeira Do Piauí, specifically in the Salinas community. This municipality was chosen because it is home to one of the largest solar parks in South America, Parque Solar Nova Olinda. To understand the dynamics of the landscape that involves this whole process, this study works with the following goals: General objective: To analyze the socio-environmental impacts caused by the production of solar energy in the municipality of Ribeira do Piauí. The specific ones are: Highlighting the activities developed by Parque Solar Nova Olinda, identifying the socio-environmental impacts caused by the production of photovoltaic solar energy at Parque Solar Nova Olinda and evaluating the perception of the local community in relation to the production of solar energy in that municipality. The geosystemic method was used to help achieve the objectives of this study, its methodological path involves the use of geoprocessing to process data related to the study area, as well as questionnaires and interviews applied to a portion of the residents of the Salinas Community, and other groups social issues that have a relationship or affinity with the proposed theme. In addition to this, the results published by the environmental impact report referring to the Nova Olinda Solar Park were also analyzed, where these data were discussed and compared with the perception of local residents. It is known that the production of solar energy provides a series of positive impacts, contributing to the expansion of the national energy matrix and the environment, however, this work points to the existence of socio-environmental impacts influenced by the arrival of the enterprise in question, which makes it necessary the debate on this topic.

  • VITORIA GLEYCE SOUSA FERREIRA
  • ANÁLISE DOS ATRIBUTOS QUÍMICOS E FÍSICOS DO SOLO DIANTE DOS USOS DA TERRA NA MICRORREGIÃO DE CAXIAS – MA

  • Data: 28/04/2023
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  • The increasing use of land, without taking into account its potentialities and limitations, occurs in changes in soil attributes, especially when there is no proper management of these. Thus, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the Chemical and physical atributes of soils under diferente land uses in the Microregion of Caxias – MA. The region known historically for its economic and environmental importance has been experiencing strong problems associated with land use, interconnected with inadequate land management. In the meantime, this research was developed from the concept of landscape, consisting in the discussion of geography as a science that comprises the process of construction between time and space through the interrelationship between nature and assisted society in the landscape. In conducting the research, we analyzed the characterization of the regional and local landscapes of the study area, Pedological characterization of Maranhão, as well as the climatic characterization of the region. As main results, two soil profiles were classified and characterized in each municipality of the Microregion, totaling 12 profiles and 58 deformed samples. The soils were classified up to the fourth categorical level (subgroups) of the Brazilian Soil Classification System, according to Santos et al. (2018). The description and collection of samples were performed following the procedures recommended by IBGE (2015), chemical and physical analyses according to Embrapa (1997), and from Camargo et al. (2009), the basic descriptive statistical analysis. The characterization of land use relationships in the Microregion of Caxias under capoeira system, pasture, área of primary vegetation and legal reserve was also carried out and the temporal analysis of changes in land use of the municipalities belonging to the Microregion between the years of 1985, 2010 and 2020, according to data from MapBiomas (2020). As a result, it was observed that in the Chemical analyzes of the soils, a pH (4.6 to 5.3), strongly acidic in the profile in the Legal Reserve area, in the capoeira area are moderately acidic (5.6 to 6.5), (5, 9 and 6.1), (5.73 and 6.0) and only Profile 08 showed a strongly acidic reaction, with pH between (4.31 and 4.61). The two profiles in the pasture area showed pH in the range of (5.09 and 6.01) and (5.5 and 5.8) and the profiles in the primary vegetation area pH between (5.9 and 6.0), (5.0 and 5.4), (5.6 and 6.1), (5.3 and 6), respectively, which allows classifying them as moderately acidic. These are soils with limitations in terms of their physical and Chemical attributes, with low natural fertility (except profile 11). They are soils withlow base saturation, presence of erosion and tenders regarding drainage. Regarding the potential of the analyzed soils, the high amount of organic matterand there lief form (flat and gently undulating) stand out, which facilitates the use of the land in several cultures, especially mechanized agriculture, due to the agricultural machinery be facilitated in these types of relief. The statistical analysis showed that the K+, Ca+ and Mg+ contentes varied between the diferente soil uses, as well as thePotassium (K) contentes of the profiles in capoeira system, primary vegetation and pasture, which presented greater homogeneity, while the contentes of Ca+Mg and Ca2 showed less homogeneity. Mean K valueswerelower in thepasture system, dueto inadequate soil management or overgrazing. Despitethis, the potassium content in the soil can be increased with the development of a potassium management strategy with the fertilization of essential nutrients. The statistical analysis proved that the average of the chemical attributes (pH, Al, P, Ca, Mg, H, Al, SB and MO) are below the desirable for a productive soil. In the evaluation of land use changes in the Caxias microregion between 1985, 2010 and 2020, it was found that there was a significant increase in livestock and a reduction in natural vegetation.

2022
Descrição
  • ALLANA PEREIRA COSTA
  • LAND USE PRESSURES IN THE AMAZON MARANHENSE BIOME

  • Data: 08/08/2022
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  • The Eastern Amazon or Maranhense comprises 3.4% of the entire Brazilian Amazon. In this territory, there is a set of landscapes marked by the biodiversity of the most diverse ecosystems and sociocultural constructions that have been remodeling, especially in the last six decades. The natural spaces and environments were aggravated by human activities, which is a great challenge to the entities competent for the application of environmental policies and maintenance of the remaining natural environments, to the detriment of the economic demand of the market for natural resources and pressures of land use. Considering the above, this study analyzed the interrelations of land use and cover pressures in the Amazon biome of Maranhão for the indication of the areas of greatest criticality of rupture of environmental relations, aiming at environmental recovery. Moreover, this research has as specific objectives to characterize the processes of land use and the anthropogenic pressures associated with the year 2020; evaluate the types of land cover in the Amazon biome of Maranhão, for the purpose of recognizing the distribution patterns of the remaining natural landscapes; and to analyze the heat foci as a force-setting configuration for the dynamics of land use and land cover in the Amazon biome of Maranhão and its correlation with the remaining natural environments, in order to signal the degree of threat and impairment of the environmental balance of the deprecated area and verify, based on the regional dynamics of potential evapotranspiration, the current configuration of the resilience of the remaining natural environments through the pressures of land use in the Amazon biome of Maranhão. Therefore, to obtain the results, a bibliographic survey, cartographic production in GIS (Geographic Information System) environments and field work were carried out in order to verify spatially arranged events in the biome and validate data collected on site in a cabinet. However, the results show that, in the 2010s, regional water stress was a constant and the hot flashes were concentrated mainly in the vicinity of Indigenous Lands and Conservation Units. Moreover, it was found that the biome presents phytophysiognomies of both amazon and cerrado, which are in a calculation of 25%, the remaining 75 % are distributed in consolidated uses, which, since the process of construction of the territory, accompanied by state incentives or demand of territories by the population, have instituted the areas of land use pressure. This perspective leads to the diligence that, despite the challenge in analyzing the behavior of the dynamics of this clipping in space, considering the pressures of land use. To demonstrate these scenarios, we sought to relate the dimension of phytogeographic aspects and heat foci to climatological aspects, to the contradictions between the recognition of regional phytophysiognomies and to areas established as priorities for bioecological conservation.

  • ANNY KAROLYNY OLIVEIRA PORTELA
  • TECHNOGENIC DEPOSITS: historicity, classification and identification in the Anil river basin – São Luis - MA


  • Data: 27/12/2022
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  • Environmental changes are a new geological-geomorphological setting, caused by technical developments carried out by humans primarily by the development of cities, transforming the landscapes. In Brazil the studies on the presence of technogenic urban deposits dating back since the 1990. Since then, were created a range of denominations of classifications, based on references. Where the urbanized environments and the genesis of the technogenic deposits, have a relationship with the soil use and occupation without planning, promoting the transformation of surface materials, resulting in technogenic deposits. Because the geological action man produces effects in urban areas. In General, have observed the formation of tecnogênicos deposits in tidal flats and in close to watercourses, where it has the highest rates and fluctuations altimétricos on slope. This work aims a historical analysis, identification and characterization  tecnogênicos deposits from the geo-environmental characteristics of the study area. The methodology used in bibliographic review basiou, analysis in Office of satellite images from Google Earth, to prior identification of deposits, field activity for reconnaissance of the area of research and validation and characterization of technogenic deposits for the mapping in the study area. It was noted also that the occurrence of technogenic deposits fall within the category of ingratiation and degradation.

  • ANTONIO JOSE ARAUJO CRUZ
  • MODERNIZATION, EXPULSION AND RESISTANCE IN THE METROPOLE OF SÃO LUÍS: THE RURAL TERRITORIES OF CAJUEIRO AND CAMBOA DOS FRADES

     

  • Data: 18/03/2022
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  • From the theoretical concept of used territory, understood as a synonymous with geographic space, we problematize – according to the geographical situations of the rural areas of Cajueiro and Camboa dos Frades - about the relations between modernization, expulsion and resistance in the major city of São Luís. In both situations, modernizing pressures on rural territories are observed, which is substantiated by the implementation of technical macrosystems, reducing life in these places in order to giving place for agromineral commodities. In this perspective, based on a bibliographic review, on a secondary data survey, on fieldwork and on technical works, (i) we propose a periodization for the "modernization", the "marginalization" and the "expulsion" in the context of urban formation of São Luís; (ii) we present the geographic situations of the discussed rural areas, which historically live the experience of the barbarity of the expulsions; (iii) we analyzed the ways of cooperation and resistance that express the articulation of the people who live in Cajueiro and Camboa dos Frades with other places and social movements; (iv) we assess the daily life in these places, and its role as spaces of confrontation through struggles and solidarity. It is an effort to interpret the reality and dilemmas of this complex metropolis and its socio-territorial inequalities.

     

  • CHRISLIANNE COSTA PEREIRA
  • Vulnerability to Saline Intrusion in the Tibiri River Basin Groundwater, São Luís - MA.

  • Data: 01/08/2022
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  • During the 1970s and 1980s, the city of São Luís began, rather late, a process of industrialization, marked by the birth of the Industrial District in 1980. This was followed by a rapid increase in population density due to intense migration to the capital, resulting in a noticeable change in the demographics inside the Tibiri River basin and its neighboring areas. As a direct consequence of this, we have seen in the last few decades a significant deterioration of groundwater resources due to the occupation of recharging areas of aquifers, as well as the increased pressure on these resources by the city of São Luís. This indicates the city’s need for careful planning and strategizing, in order to protect its aquifers. The aquifers of insular environments become even more prone to saline intrusion, which can occur horizontally, through water that trickles in from the sea, or also vertically, due to the influence of mangroves and estuaries. The presence of mangrove vegetation indicates that saline waters and an estuarine environment are present in all coastal basins of the city of São Luís, such as Tibiri, Anil, Paciência, Bacanga, Rio dos Cachorros, Santo Antônio, Igaraú and more. In the Tibiri River basin, groundwater is used for different purposes in rural communities, for public and private supply in residential areas, and to meet the demand of businesses located in the Industrial District. Given the importance of this watershed, and of the saline wedge problem, the GALDIT method proposed by Chachadi and Lobo Ferreira (2001) is one of the tools that can be used to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to saline intrusion, splitting up the area of focus into high vulnerability ( ≥7.5), medium (5 -7.5) or low (≤5) classes. As such, this research study will thus apply the Aquifer Vulnerability Chart to Saline Intrusion to the areas of the Tibiri River Basin. This analysis identified the vulnerability classes inside the aforementioned regions, which could then be applied as a decision-making instrument regarding groundwater management in the city of São Luís. The results achieved show a high vulnerability only to the rural area of Mato Grosso, on the left bank of the river, which is heightened due to its location near the mouth of the Tibiri River, where the flow of the tide begins. The rural region of Quebra Pote, Santa Helena, and Itapera do Quebra Pote, located on the right bank of the river, on the lower part of the watershed, was classified as a region of moderate vulnerability. Likewise, the Tibirizinho and Tajaçuaba regions, in the upper part of the basin, also indicated moderate vulnerability. On the left bank of the river, the Andiroba extension to the São Raimundo neighborhood showed low vulnerability to saline intrusion. On the right bank, the communities of Cinturão Verde and Tinaí also showed low vulnerability, despite their proximity to the mangrove area. In addition to the natural processes of estuarine environments, the characteristics of land use in the basin involving residential, industrial, and rural uses, also strain the groundwater resources. The high and moderate vulnerability classes identified in the basin attests the occurrence of the saline wedge phenomenon inside the Tibiri River basin, which, despite being mostly rural, has an insular condition. This research study demonstrates the importance of using knowledge of hydrodynamics data of pipe wells and qualitative groundwater data analysis for the purposes of monitoring the saline wedge behavior and subsidizing measures that will mitigate the salinization of groundwater in the basin.

     

  • DELONY DE QUEIROZ RIBEIRO
  • ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRAGILITY IN HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF THE CACHORROS RIVER, SÃO LUÍS – MA.

  • Data: 31/03/2022
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  • The conflicting relationship between society and nature, through territorial-environmental dynamics and tensions over spaces, natural resources, political conflicts, and the unbridled search for industrialization, promote impacts on the environment, especially in coastal areas that are particularly sensitive and fragile to occupation of social agents. Among the watersheds of São Luís (Maranhão), the watershed of Cachorros river was one of the areas of the city to receive large urban and industrial projects. In turn, accelerated urbanization has brought several consequences to the environment. This basin is estuarine, with a dendritic pattern, has an area of 64.37 km² and includes several springs. It is located in the southwest portion of Maranhão Island and south of São Luís, forming part of the Eastern Amazon. The basin is vulnerable to erosive processes, due to its environmental characteristics - a natural phenomenon, which is intensified, however, by land uses. In this way, the objective of this dissertation is to analyze the environmental fragility of Cachorros river’s watershed, through the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). For this, the research relied on the methodological procedures of survey and analysis of bibliographic material, elaboration of cartographic material of geoenvironmental characteristics, field work, as well as analysis and spatialization of environmental fragility and soil losses in the study area. The guiding concept of this research is the environment, a work marked by social relationships, as well as by the union of the study of nature and society. In addition, a coastal environment was studied, so there was an adaptation of the techniques that were used to carry out the analyzes of environmental fragility and soil losses in the basin. It was found that the watershed of Cachorros river has several social fractions, especially urban (residential use and services), rural (communities and settlements) and industrial, in addition to environmental protection areas, and each of these groups uses the land in a different way, with emphasis on rural agents, who use the basin as a form of livelihood and still try to protect the remaining bodies of water, despite the pressure of large enterprises. There was also a decrease in the rural area, an increase in the urban area and the multiplication of industrial classes, mainly related to the port system and mining. Thus, the removal of vegetation cover has been transforming the watershed of Cachorros river, as the vegetation cover is the main protection against erosion. In field work, it was possible to notice that degradation is present mainly in mining sites, and is mainly related to the intensification of erosive processes. Moreover, the environmental fragility of the study area ranged from: Very Weak 1 to Very Strong 5. Most are made up of the Middle class 3 (36%), followed by Strong 4 (26%), by Very Strong 5 (18%), by Very Weak 1 (12%) and by Weak 2 (8%). Furthermore, soil loss values ranged from 0 to > 200 t.ha-1 year-1, and were divided into 8 classes, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 1967), apud Guimarães et al. . al. (2011): None or slight 1 ( 0 ⊢ 1 t.ha-1 year-1), ( 65%), None or slight 2 ( 1 ⊢ 3 t.ha-1 year-1), (1%), None or slight 3 (3 ⊢ 5 t.ha-1 year-1), (1%), None or slight 4 (5 ⊢ 10 t.ha-1 year-1), (1%), Moderate 5 (10 ⊢ 20 t.ha-1 year-1), (4%), Moderate 6 (20 ⊢50 t.ha-1 year-1), (16%), High 7 (50 ⊢ 200 t.ha-1 year -1), (1%) and Very High 8 (> 200 t.ha-1 yr-1). In view of this, the tendency is for new areas of environmental fragility and soil loss to emerge. Thus, analyzes such as this contribute as important materials to be used to support discussions on use and coverage, zoning, territorial-environmental planning and management, degradation of water courses, among other elements, since erosion is considered one of the greater environmental risks and should be studied by society.

  • ELINALVA ALVES LIMA
  • The advance of urbanization and the socio-territorial conflicts that occurred in the municipality of Paço do Lumiar: the situation of the rural community of Tendal Mirim

  • Data: 24/08/2022
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  • carried out: a) interview b) participant observation c) collection and recording of data through a field diary d) analysis and interpretation of the data obtained. According to the data found in the research, it appears that the studied community, Tendal Mirim, has been suffering from the process of expropriation and is seeking justice for the land tenure regularization of its territory. Faced with the threat of eviction arising after long years of occupying those lands, the community proves that it fulfills the social function of property, a constitutional duty, exercised through housing and daily work on the farm. In this context, in the course of the study, it is observed that the urban development caused by the implementation of new condominiums in the municipality of Paço do Lumiar, aroused the interest of the real estate market for the large extensions of land found there, among them that occupied by the community of Tendal Mirim. An event that brought insecurity and vulnerability in the face of the socio-territorial conflict unleashed, forcing residents to seek the State Public Defender's Office, in an attempt to have their right of possession and titling ensured.

  • ELNA LUCILIA SANTOS CORREA
  • SURFACE WATER QUALITY INDICATORS AS A SUBSIDY TO WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: the case of the Una river sub-basin, Maranhão.

  • Data: 02/06/2022
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  • The recurrent human intervention in water sources alters the natural characteristics of these environments, causing serious problems related to water quality and availability. The state of Maranhão is endowed with one of the largest water networks in the country, with the Una River (Morros, Maranhão, Brazil) as part of this system, which has an important influence on the local economy, due to its use, mainly for tourism activity. in the region. The watershed is considered a planning unit to develop policies aimed at optimizing water resources. Thus, the main objective of the present work was to analyze the physical-chemical, biological parameters and quality indicators of the surface waters of the Una river sub-basin, as an element of diagnosis of environmental quality. The theoretical-methodological approach is based on the theory of integrated landscape analysis, which explains and describes the phenomena existing in the environment. The collections were carried out in two distinct periods, being rainy and dry, where the physical parameters were verified in loco and in the laboratory the chemical and biological indicators. The trophic level was measured by the Trophic State Index (IET), through the model proposed by Lamparelli (2004). The results obtained in the analyzes indicated a good water quality situation in the sub-basin for use in classes 2 according to CONAMA Resolution No. 357/2005, with a trophic state characterized as Ultraoligotrophic for all sampling points. However, after performing correlations between the parameters studied and the behavior of land use and land cover classes for the years 2000 and 2020, weaknesses were identified in the points (P2, P3, P4) with greater anthropic influence. Based on this information, prospective scenarios were developed for the mitigation of public policies aimed at conserving natural environments, especially water resources.

  • GABRIEL MACEDO MONTEIRO
  • CONFLICTS OF USE AND LAND COVER IN THE AMAZON MARANHENSE: real use and formal use in the Microregion of planning of baixo Munim

  • Data: 26/04/2022
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  • The constant expansion of urban spaces added to the increasing demand for productive supplies that aim to provide anthropic activities in the territory, whether economic or for the maintenance of populations, has stimulated scenarios and production models associated with inadequate exploitation of natural resources, that is, without the concern to integrate sustainability and conservation of environmental heritage. The manifestation of this configuration, especially in the first two decades of the 21st century, is one of the main variables that cause ruptures in the balance of natural systems and, consequently, contribute to the processes of their degradation. During this period, the Microregion of Planning of Baixo Munim, in which seven municipalities are inserted, namely: Axixá, Bacabeira, Cachoeira Grande, Morros, Icatu, Presidente Juscelino, and Rosário, witnessed a significant geographical restructuring given the diversification of its economic activities, based on the exploitation of available natural resources; mineral extraction aimed at the manufacture of materials used in civil construction; financial and land valuation of the territory; industrial establishments with a focus on mineral exploration; the productive potential of agricultural supply; expansion of tourism and summer; urbanization and the recent integration of its constituent municipalities in the planning area of the Metropolitan Region of Greater São Luís (RMGSL), for example. It is necessary to emphasize that the municipalities that make up the respective Microregion are inserted in a very vulnerable part of the Legal Amazon, that is, in the edge/transition between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado in Maranhão. In this sense, when considering all the elements that subsidize the construction of geographic space, one must often praise the peculiarities of each municipal territory as observed in the State of Maranhão, as well as highlight the essentiality of the participation of the Public Power, in any of its spheres of action, as legitimate producers of spatial configuration. In a statement, one of the numerous functions of the State is to maintain social relations and intervene in the production processes of the territories, especially in their attribution to create and reaffirm centralities and hierarchies, regardless of federal entities and legal spheres. From this perspective, the objective of this work is to identify the main processes of conflicts of Uses and Occupation of the lands present in the Microregion of Planning of Baixo Munim. This research also aims to analyze the modalities of Land Uses from the comparison between the (Formal) Use provided for in the legislation and the Real Use in the municipalities that make up the Microregion, as well as to propose criteria for territorial planning based on interviews with public managers based on the survey of information for areas with a high degree of socio[1]environmental vulnerability. Therefore, it is noteworthy that the Formal Use is conceived, therefore, by the production of geographic space thanks to technical rationality and a regulatory system that is realized in the territory as a current legal norm. The Real Use is perceived as a set of social practices arranged in the very space that leads to reality, practices that originate all the things that exist due to experiences, human experiences and nature itself that directly reflect on the patterns of Land Use and Occupation in each locality, of which interpretation, delimitation and classification are the main interests of the present study. Thus, the realization of spatial analyses will allow the understanding of conflicts of land uses in the Microregion of Planning of Baixo Munim.

  • HAMILTON FERREIRA DE SOUSA NETO
  • URBANIZAÇÃO CORPORATIVA E FRAGMENTADA: o circuito espacial produtivo de materiais de limpeza em Codó – Ma.

  • Orientador : CARLOS EDUARDO NOBRE
  • Data: 15/07/2022
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  • Codó, a Brazilian city belonging to the State of Maranhão, which has an estimated population of 123,368 inhabitants (IBGE, 2021), and considered the sixth most populous municipality in the State, responsible for housing several productive spatial circuits, with emphasis on the circuits of a agent in evidence, responsible for dynamizing the relations and space of the municipality: Grupo Empresarial F. C. Oliveira, which consists of a holding company operating in different sectors of the economy that include agricultural, industrial, trade and services activities, and presents itself as the dominant agent which contributes to the urbanization process of the city, aiming at its expansion from the concentration of capital, including infrastructure and urban equipment. We seek to investigate whether the expansion of diversified economic activities of this business group can lead to a process of oligopolization of the most varied sectors of the urban economy of Codó, and how these contributed to a process of corporate and fragmented urbanization of the city, which remains in the search for modernization and market competition, and which presents an expansion of precarious activities, marked by low remuneration, such as families that still survive from family and subsistence agriculture, or depend on jobs that pay low wages, in addition to the typical activities of the informal sector. The productive spatial circuit of activities related to the F.C. group comprises the current use of the territory, parallel to its movement, through the analysis of flows promoted by its instances of production, revealing the differentiated use of the territory by the privileged agent in question, who, in their production processes, and circulation, dynamizes material and immaterial flows. If, on the one hand, the activities related to this group stand out in the state and national scenario as important and well-developed, we have in contrast the inequalities observed on the other hand, which reveal the numerous unmet demands of less favored portions, which are left to margin of these processes, and that need to be seen and discussed.

  • JACKSON SOUSA DOS SANTOS
  • CAIS DA SAGRAÇÃO: stretches the look between Montello and geography – places in existences


  • Data: 21/06/2022
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  • By problematizing Cais da Sagração, a novel written by Josué Montello, from Maranhão, this dissertation deals with a text of places and existences situated between the sea and the situated lands, and which focuses on the life and as spatial partners of the boatman Severino. In fact, it is possible to interpret the aforementioned novel in a way that, together with the view between Montellian work and geography, sometimes focuses on the experiences of the subjects-characters of the book, sometimes based on the reality of Camboa dos Frades, Porto area. from Itaqui, about 15 km from São Luís, undertaken as fieldwork. From the novel, the movement between the localized places of Mestre Severino and São Luís gives the rhythm of the literary narrative. Based, above all, on contributions from Cultural Geography and Humanist Geography, it is inscribed under whose main questions are: bibliographic review and reflection of conceptualized notions fundamental to the study chapter; selection of themes, and plot references to the novel for a purpose of spatial creation; exercise of interviews and follow-up of lectures about Montello's life and about the Cais da Sagração work and development of field work. In short, it is concluded that Cais da Sagração denotes teachings that translate literature as a text that does not close in on itself, since life can also imitate art. Geography is also responsible for understanding or referring to stimuli.

  • JANDERSON ROCHA SILVA
  • INDEX OF POTENTIALITY OF OCCURRENCE OF CAVITIES IN SANDSTONES IN THE TOCANTINS/ARAGUAIA HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN IN THE STATE FROM MARANHÃO.

  • Data: 01/08/2022
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  • This research focuses on promoting the research of natural research in the State of Maranhão. The cut chosen for the research was in the Tocantins/Araguaia Basin, located in the southwest region of Maranhão. Based on an approach to the application of geographic information systems, using methods of multifactor analysis and map algebra, on an application scale it was 1:100,000 guided by the concept of landscape and the concept of sandstone carousel. The general objective of the research is to develop an indicator of cave occurrence applicable in the Tocantins/Araguaia Basin in the State of Maranhão, through the use of multicriteria analysis. They have specific objectives for the validation of occurrences of the proven model and topograph and register as caves, in addition, to add a checklist, successively, each one of geology, speleogenesis and the existence of biological and specific resources, if any. Among the factors that guide the need for this study is the location of the Hydrographic Basin, as there are two speleological provinces both on the Maranhão side and on the Tocantins side. The important factor is present in Decree No. 6,640 of 2008, which deals with the formation of environmental licensing of Brazilian speleological heritage, in addition to the geological and morphological characteristics of the area that contribute to the need for caves in the region. For this, we chose to use the AHP method (Analy Processing) which is one of the most used decision-making methods for the individual use of variables, and to present the result in addition to the numerical one, it can be map algebra. The results showed that the methodology was efficient to measure the potential for the occurrence of cavities in sandstone, since the average of 36.71% of the cavities that were found in the prospecting works are located in areas of High and Very High Potentiality for the Basin Hydrographic of Tocantins/Araguaia, in addition to carrying out topographies and registering the caves with the Brazilian Society of Speleology. Among the difficulties encountered in the research is the lack of a geological base with a scale greater than that of the Geological Survey of Brazil of 1:250,000, which makes it difficult to cross the variables by pixel size when converted to matrix format and the geomorphology base from IBGE (2009) which was used in part to define the landforms, but during the mapping process it showed major inconsistency.

     

     

  • JULIANA LOPES ALMEIDA
  • EVALUATION OF GEOBIOPHYSICAL AND ANTHROPIC MEANS FOR THE FORMATION OF THE LANDSCAPES OF THE TURIAÇU RIVER HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN, MARANHÃO.

  • Data: 19/01/2022
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  • The intense anthropogenic pressure exerted on natural resources has increased in recent years. These changes in a hydrographic basin directly affect nutrient cycling, water availability, soil structure and climate, as vegetation cover plays a role in stability in the basin, helping to maintain these resources. For this reason, the integrated approach to landscape planning and management of natural resources requires the identification and assessment of the geobiophysical and anthropic attributes of a territory, as they have their own characteristics and dynamisms that consequently suffer human influence in time and space. Thus, the present work aims to evaluate how the geobiophysical and anthropic environments alter the landscape of the Turiaçu River Basin. For that, the following procedures were carried out: the environmental characterization, where geology, geomorphology, soils, geodiversity, vegetation and climate data were used; the analysis of the evolution of land use and land cover using MapBiomas data from the years 1985 and 2019 of collection 5; the landscape structure of the Turiaçu River Basin that was quantified through landscape metrics indices. This procedure was carried out for the years 1985 and 2019. To help with each of the procedures mentioned, two field activities were carried out (February and November). Thus, the results consisted of nine geological formations; eight geomorphological units; five types of soils; seven geoenvironmental classes; eight classes of vegetation. In relation to climate, the basin presented two climatic types and the analysis of climatic variables, mean temperature and precipitation, showed that the region did not present significant variations between the years 1985 to 2019. landscape evidenced significant changes between 1985 and 2019, showing that the forest areas lost more than 20% of their area, in addition to the increase in fragmentation and the reduction of forest edges due to the advance of anthropic activities. research, it is clear that although the Turiaçu River Basin is still largely protected by Conservation Units and Indigenous Land, the basin suffers serious anthropogenic pressure, mainly caused by the transformation of forests into pasture areas, which it can cause serious impacts, such as changes in nutrient cycling, water availability, soil structure and climate.

  • MARINALVA FERREIRA MONTEIRO
  • EL TERRITORIO COMO COBERTURA Y RECURSO: Implicaciones de la deforestación en reorganización y territorialidad de la Comunidad Colônia Amélia/Turiaçu-MA.

  • Data: 28/07/2022
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  • El estímulo para el desarrollo de esta disertación surge frente a las transformaciones ocurridas frente a la deforestación, los constantes flujos de camiones madereros que componen la dinámica territorial en el territorio de la Colônia Amélia/Turiaçu/MA. Surge asi la pregunta: ¿Cómo el avance de la deforestación modificó la territorialidad, en la perspectiva del territorio como refugio y recurso en la Colônia Amélia/Turiaçu-MA? Delante este contexto, el Objetivo General es: Analizar el avance del proceso de deforestación en el territorio de la Colônia Amélia-MA y sus implicaciones para la territorialidad de la comunidad. Y los objetivos específicos son: Comprender los aspectos geohistóricos del proceso de ocupación y territorialización de la comunidad; interpretar la percepción ambiental de los pobladores sobre el proceso de transformación ambiental provocado por la deforestación; preparar un mapa situacional, que muestre lo que ahora existe en la localidad, basado en las memorias y experiencias de las personas de la comunidad. Abordamos las relaciones sociales en el territorio buscando discutir aspectos de la territorialidad a partir de la dialéctica del uso del territorio como recurso y refugio como abordajes analíticos de la investigación. Nos basamos en levantamientos bibliográficos y documentales, también a través de visitas de campo, con enfoque cuantitativo y cualitativo, aplicando entrevistas con preguntas abiertas. A partir de estas reflexiones, se obtienen los siguientes resultados: la caracterización de la situación geográfica, histórica, cultural y socioambiental, evidenciamos su contexto de formación territorial estrechamente vinculado a las corrientes migratorias en el contexto de Maranhão. Desvelamos las nuevas territorialidades del lugar como retiros de los molinos harineros, así como los nuevos modos de producción a partir de ese retiro. Se observó el avance de la deforestación, especialmente luego de la instalación de aserraderos en la localidad. En la búsqueda de comprender el cotidiano y las nuevas territorialidades de los sujetos, realizamos un recorrido perceptivo, que nos permitió evidenciar la percepción de los pobladores locales sobre el proceso de deforestación, al ver los cambios socioambientales en la localidad, con sus complejidades en cuanto a las diferentes interpretaciones de diferentes sujetos ocupando un mismo espacio-lugar


  • RAQUEL PEREIRA SANTANA
  • ANALYSIS ON 1 YEAR OF PANDEMIA: Reflections on public health to cases of covid-19 in rural São Luís-MA

  • Data: 07/04/2022
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  • The Geography of Health is a field of study that is gaining more and more space among geographers. Faced with the emergence of epidemic outbreaks, and more recently pandemics (COVID-19 in 2019 still in force), the relevance of health studies from a geographical perspective is verified. The main objective of this research was to reflect on public health policies in the health district of Vila Esperança. rural area of the municipality of São Luís. The objective from this mapping was to carry out an analysis on access to health in the region. In addition, the seasonality of Covid-19 cases in the district was carried out in view of the health crisis at a pandemic level, a disease caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The method used was that of historical materialism. The tools used for spatialization were ArcMap 10.5 and Google Earth software. At the end of the study, we concluded that the district has 13 basic health units with outpatient care, and 1 UPA for urgent and emergency care; and it was also possible to identify the neighborhoods of Maracanã and Vila Sarney as the places that most accumulated cases.

  • WALEFE LOPES DA CRUZ
  • ANALYSIS OF SURFACE FLOW IN THE HIGH STREAM OF THE ANIL RIVER HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN IN SÃO LUÍS - MARANHÃO

  • Data: 11/07/2022
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  • The present work aimed to analyze the surface runoff in the upper course of the Anil river basin, located in the city of São Luís/MA, with an area of 9.07 km². The specific objectives were: to assess land use and land cover; to physiographically characterize the upper course of the basin; identify the Curve Number of the area through the analysis of physiographic and climatological data of the area; identify the surface runoff of the area; and compare and validate this data through infiltration tests. To achieve these objectives, two research stages were carried out, namely, desk work and field work. In the first stage, activities were carried out for research planning, elaboration of maps, bibliographic analysis and writing of the text. In the second stage, fieldwork was carried out to get to know the area, take photographic records and carry out infiltration tests. After this stage, returning to the cabinet stage, graphs of the data obtained from the infiltration tests were prepared and the statistical analysis of the data generated with the tests was performed. 40 tests were carried out to obtain the values of accumulated infiltration, which were used as potential for water storage in the soil (S). The Curve Number (CN) technique was used, and surface runoff was estimated for the upper course with the aforementioned technique and infiltration tests. The data indicated that the runoff rates are lower than those identified with the infiltration test in vegetated areas and with exposed soil. The values obtained with the infiltration tests range from 24.2mm to 89.89mm for hydrological group B in vegetated areas and from 0 to 121.88mm in areas of exposed soil. The values of surface runoff in the same vegetated areas and with exposed soil obtained with the CN technique were, respectively, 42.45mm and 116mm. Regarding hydrological type D, the rates identified were from 2.55mm to 74.33mm for vegetated area and from 12.48mm to 100.8mm for areas with exposed soil. From the CN technique, the data generated for the same hydrological type D were 77.22mm and 107.7mm respectively. The tests with the highest runoff rates generated were respectively 14, 17, 20, 29 and 40, which were located in areas with exposed soil with CN ranging from 78 to 95, obtaining values greater than 100mm for precipitation of 139.4mm. The statistical analysis performed using the Spearman Correlation Matrix indicated that there is a weak correlation between the surface runoff data generated by the CN technique and the infiltration tests carried out in vegetated areas and with exposed soil.

2021
Descrição
  • CRYSTIÃ ARAUJO LEAO
  • ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE DEGRADATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS: a study on the application of the anthropic transformation index in the watershed of the Boa Hora stream, Maranhão.

     
     
  • Data: 01/02/2021
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  • The general objective of this research was to analyze the degradation of the landscape of the Riacho da Boa Hora Hydrographic Basin, in the municipality of Urbano Santos-MA, through the Anthropic Transformation Index-ITA. It is known that the spread of human activities over natural environments, demands more and more studies about the implications arising from such a process, as well as thinking about alternatives that suit the new and old demands of the environment in question. Given this context, the present study sought to address the conceptual bases pertinent to the research, identify the different types of land uses, and analyze the degree of transformation of the referred basin. For this research, we analyzed the last 36 years of transformation in the affected hydrographic basin, (554 km² 32.4% of the total area of the municipality) which, due to the expansion of agribusiness, brought new social and economic dynamics that started to dictate the way the municipality's natural environments are explored. In this study proposal, the help of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was essential for the production of the ITA map, which took into account the area occupied by each type of land use, the weights by the degree of anthropization defined from the Delphi method built with the help of researchers from the region, providing an overview of the transformation of the local landscape. The results of the ITA for the Boa Hora stream basin, showed an important evolution in the comparison between the years 1984 and 2020, however, in a general picture, the basin appears as Little Pegrada according to the levels of degradation suggested by the methodology, the which raised doubts about the applicability of the index for any scenario and also for the weights attributed to certain classes of use, especially when taking into account the transformations perceived in the maps of use and in comparison with other works. Despite the unexpected result, the discussion on the degradation of the landscape was feasible, making it possible to propose recommendations for uses within the basin, which can be expanded to the municipal reality, in view of the representativeness of the hydrographic basin area within the territory municipal level, and the homogeneity of environmental and social characteristics perceived there.

  • FERNANDO GUSTAVO MEIRELES BAIMA
  • USES OF MARANHENSE TERRITORY: Expansion and regionalization of the State Prison System (1830-2020).

  • Data: 19/05/2021
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  • The space distribution of the Maranhão Prison Units reflects a logic adopted by the State Penitentiary System. The territory used by the prison system is, in fact, the production of criminal political projects and, therefore, expressions of the state's uses of the territory, maximally the fact that they are also used by society and companies. When using the territory to install geographic landmarks (typology / architecture of Prison Units), it is instituting a given regionalization of the territory, which in Law, for example, is considered as jurisdiction - the territorial extension of the competence of a given legal institution . There is no way to neglect all of these variables when entering into the collation of information to understand the dynamics adopted by the State of Maranhão in the implementation of the prison structure. Furthermore, the very transformations experienced in production and in all spheres of social life, implies, strictly speaking, in modifying not only the reproduction of capital, work and even the (everyday) way of life of the different social classes, but in restructuring the space where the reproduction of the social relations of production and totality takes place. In this tuning fork, the general objective of the present work is to investigate the territorial expansion of the Maranhense Penitentiary System with a focus on the regionalization of the respective System. The Investigation of how the Prison Units were distributed and, above all, necessary for us to understand the territorial dynamics of the prison system of this federative unit, in the face of the expansion of the Maranhão prison system. It is important to note that each of these units performs specific functions in addition to transmitting a logic of regionalization of its facilities, that is, through them the State is able to implement its objectives and purposes concerning the policy of the Prison System adopted.

  • FLÁVIA MARTINS SILVA
  • SANTO AMARO DO MARANHÃO, SCENARIO OF NEW TERRITORIALITY: the paving of the MA-320 as an object of viability of a new dynamics.

  • Data: 28/01/2021
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  • The city of Santo Amaro do Maranhão is located in the Northern Mesoregion of the State, in the Microregion of Lençóis Maranhenses, which has been receiving public and private investments focused on the tourism sector, but until less than a decade Santo Amaro was practically isolated, in a region without flows and networks, where the way of life of the population was focused on a closer relationship with nature. From 2018 the paving of the MA-320 highway that gives access to the city, allowed the fluidity towards the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, one of the most sought after destinations by tourists in Maranhão, this has generated new territorialities. It is hypothest that Santo Amaro will break the close relationship with nature becoming a tourist city which will generate change in the way of life and also new problems will come into existence. To prove these factors, the work was performed through the historical and dialectical materialist method that gives the possibility of investigating the social context of the object of study through observation, for this we used techniques of field activity and bibliographic research. As a result it can be affirmed that in fact the city has changed its way of life turning to tourism, has grown the number of inhabitants in the city and also the number of investments such as inns, tourism agencies, real estate speculation is on the rise, this can be perceived by the emergence of condominiums and business opening, and there is also growth of environmental problems such as open dumps and lack of basic sanitation.

  • GISELE POLANSKI FRANÇA DA SILVA
  • SUNDAY IS DAY OF FEIRINHA SÃO LUÍS: (re)live in party and between heritage and tourist landscapes


  • Data: 14/05/2021
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  • In the interface with tourism, historic centers have been the target of public policies aim to revalue their heritage landscapes. It is a theme of explicit spatial and temporal dimension, and such actions go beyond the preservation of the past, making the present dynamic, and at times, festive. This seems to be the case of what has been happening in the Historic Center of São Luís, Maranhão, taken here more specifically by 'Feirinha São Luís'. In the Center, several policies have been intending, through the historical content, to heat up the city's cultural image, which, among other functions, seeks to strengthen itself as a tourist destination. Related to the Reviva Centro Program, the 'Feirinha São Luís' has been held since 2017 on Sundays at Benedito Leite square, with an outstanding festive connotation. Privileged as our empirical field, the problem arises from this research, to wit: in the midst of the urban requalification policies provided by the Reviva Centro Program, how the levels of meanings of the Feirinha São Luís are structured and experienced, as a party, between heritage and tourist landscapes, in the sense to contribute to the revival of the Historic Center of São Luís? In the treatment with theories intertwined between Tourism and Geography, admitting a cultural approach, guided predominantly by the phenomenological method, with qualitative nature. The research has as general objective to interpret the festive dimension of the Feirinha, located in the core of the Historical Center, surrounded, therefore, by heritage and tourist landscapes, and that is composed of multiple experiences and perceptions, of which we condense reflections regarding to what we heard from the coordination of the Feirinha, the marketers, Ludovicenses and tourists. Overall, it is possible to verify that Feirinha has, in fact, been introducing new cultural configurations to the Historical Center of São Luís and the city's tourist image, functioning as a unique symbolic strategy for the appropriation of space and time.

  • GLEYCIANE DE JESUS PEREIRA CRUZ
  • THE TERRITORY OF HOUSING IN PAÇO DE LUMIAR: an analysis of socio-spatial segregation

     
     
  • Data: 26/02/2021
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  • The research analyzes the socio-spatial segregation in Paço do Lumiar promoted by the implantation of subdivisions and closed condominiums, with the case study about the residential subdivision Portal do Paço. The theoretical-methodological perspective of historical dialectical materialism allows us to observe the history, conflicts and contradictions inherent to society and the category of territory were instruments to reflect on the action of agents who use space and the roles they play in the territorial dynamics of the municipality, highlighting the social implications and contradictions related to closed condominiums and subdivisions in a municipality that still retains peri-urban characteristics. Thus, it discusses the production of space, the capitalist city and its complexities linked to power relations. In this way, rural and urban areas submit themselves to the logic of space as a financial asset, transformed into merchandise. As a consequence, space brings its conflicting and contradictory relationships. Hence the negative of the city, segregation. Distance through walls is a new form of contemporary urban segregation. In the municipality, there is a clash between use value and exchange value, which even have violent outlines. Which removes communities due to real estate speculation in this region. In view of the above, Paço do Lumiar has the spatial effects arising from an urbanization that privileges exchange value as opposed to the social use of the city, this is observed: in urban expansion, in the construction of closed condominiums and parallel to this form- if the polarization of poverty and the struggle for housing in the city. This results in the formation of social fragmentation, through the construction of exclusive territories for the wealthier classes. When examining the reality of Residencial Portal do Paço, it can be seen that the residents, despite living in a planned residential neighborhood, lack basic services and urban equipment in their daily lives. It is possible to affirm that it was created to increase economic investments aiming at the profit of a business group at the expense of the quality of life of the population, with little accessibility to public services, adding economic value to the subject; it highlights the territorial dimension of citizenship linked to place and socioeconomic position of the individual.

  • HUGO LEONARDO REIS DE LIMA
  • Barreiras Formation. Cliff. Erosive Processes. Ponta Verde Beach. São José de Ribamar, Maranhão

  • Data: 21/04/2021
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  • Several atmospheric, continental, oceanic and human processes are important in modeling the natural forms of coastal relief. Among these forms of relief we can highlight the cliffs - morphology discussed in this dissertation - molded in the Barreiras Formation, found from the coast of Amapá, in the northern region, to Rio de Janeiro, in the southeast region. The cliffs are characterized by a strong slope, constituting approximately 80% of the coastline around the world, which shows the great significance for the study of this geomorphological feature. In the municipality of São José de Ribamar there is a unique set of cliffs, of Tertiary-quaternary sedimentary origin, easily subject to marine erosion, mainly through mass movements, intensified phenomena during rainy periods. As the study area has an increasing rate of human occupation, the work aims to analyze the erosive processes that occur on the cliff of Ponta Verde beach and its consequences for the local ecosystem and human activities, in addition to identifying how human action has been causing impacts in the study area, for example, the irregular disposal of solid waste and the disordered occupation of the area has affected the cliff and the ecosystem in general. The methodology was based on geosystems, starting from the analysis that the object of study presupposes an evolutionary process resulting from the combination of natural and anthropic phenomena; the determination of the soil color was performed using the Munsell Chart (2009), comparing the color of each dry and wet soil sample with the colors of the Munsell scale and noting the closest color; for the analysis of soil compaction, data collected using both the volumetric rings and the penetrometer were used; infiltration tests were carried out, using the technique proposed by Guerra (2011). From the data collected in the field and in Organs competent bodies (IBGE and INMET), maps, graphs and tables were generated that help in understanding the processes acting in the study area. With the data obtained on the apparent density of the soil, the density of particles and the total porosity, it was found that the soil is compacted, which ends up hampering the infiltration of water and, consequently, a greater runoff that accelerates erosion processes at the top of the cliff.

  • IDEVAN GUSMÃO SOARES
  • ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL VULNERABILITY TO THE EROSIVE PROCESS AS A SUBSIDY TO ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF RIO PRETO-MA.

     
     
  • Data: 18/03/2021
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  • El objeto de la obra es la cuenca hidrográfica del río Preto, que se ubica en la región nororiental del estado de Maranhão, ocupa un área de 5.235,63 km2, siendo afluente de la cuenca del río Munim. Esta investigación se basa en la categoría paisaje y su objetivo general es analizar la vulnerabilidad ambiental al proceso erosivo de la cuenca hidrográfica del río Preto - MA como un subsidio al manejo de los recursos hídricos y para objetivos específicos: determinar la planificación y unidades de manejo de la cuenca; identificar la vulnerabilidad de los parámetros físicos de la cuenca hidrográfica del río Preto y evaluar el grado de vulnerabilidad por el uso y cobertura del suelo de la cuenca del río Preto. Para el logro de los objetivos se realizó una investigación bibliográfica sobre el tema de la vulnerabilidad, paisaje como categoría de análisis en Geografía, Método Jerárquico de Procesos Analíticos (AHP), Geoprocesamiento aplicado al estudio de la vulnerabilidad; se realizó el cálculo de los parámetros morfométricos; selección de bases cartográficas (INPE, CPRM, USGS, ZEE-MA, IBGE); aplicación de técnicas de geoprocesamiento y teledetección para el mapeo de unidades geológicas, clases de suelos, unidades geomorfológicas, pendiente, hipsometría, precipitación acumulada anual, uso y cobertura del suelo. Toda la producción cartográfica se realizó utilizando Sistemas de Información Geográfica, QGIS, SPRING y ArcGIS. El trabajo de campo se realizó con el objetivo de reconocer el área del objeto, registro fotográfico y verificar la producción cartográfica. Crepani y col. (2001), que se basa en Ecodinámica de Tricart (1977) y AHP para espacializar los grados de vulnerabilidad ambiental de la cuenca, mientras que para determinar las unidades de planificación y manejo se utilizó el método de Otto Pfafstetter, por el cual se subdividió. en tres Unidades de Planificación de Recursos Hídricos (UPRH). Los resultados indican que la UPRH del Riacho do Gavião tiene la mayor área de estabilidad en la cuenca ocupando el 67,40%, mientras que la clase moderadamente estable / vulnerable ocupa el 24,26% y en situación de vulnerabilidad cubre el 8,35%. La estabilidad resulta de un relieve tabular, pendientes bajas, cobertura vegetal nativa, presencia de Latosol Amarillo y Argisol Rojo-Amarillo de hormigón. Las áreas vulnerables, por su parte, están asociadas a la agricultura, pastoreo, área urbana, forestal, vegetación secundaria, los litotipos del Grupo Itapecuru, Antiguas Barreras Eólicas Continentales y Yacimientos. En la UPRH de Río Mocambo, predominó la estabilidad con alrededor del 48,34%, el medio intergrado comprende el 29,34% y las áreas inestables el 22,33%. En esta unidad, la vulnerabilidad está asociada tanto a la interacción de los componentes naturales del paisaje al norte de la cuenca como a la actividad humana relacionada con el uso urbano, la vegetación secundaria y el cultivo de eucaliptos. Los medios estables en la UPRH de Rio Riachão ocupan el 43,45%, los intergrados alrededor del 28,65% y los inestables el 27,9%. En esta unidad, agricultura, silvicultura, pastoreo, área urbana, formaciones pioneras, vegetación con influencia marina (Restinga) fueron determinantes para la vulnerabilidad ambiental, también se observa vulnerabilidad natural en el norte de la cuenca. También se identifican conflictos sociales y que problemas ambientales como la deforestación, ocupación de APP, compactación de suelos por maquinaria pesada, desertificación de suelos, uso de plaguicidas e incendios, ambos relacionados con monocultivos, han impactado la cuenca, además de agravar la vulnerabilidad. En este contexto, a través del mapeo de las áreas de vulnerabilidad, las medidas de prevención y mitigación se vuelven más fáciles de contemplar debido a la espacialización de estos riesgos, en consecuencia, existen subsidios esenciales para que el poder público actúe para realizar la gestión ambiental y, para en consecuencia conservar la cuenca del río Preto - MA.

     
     
     
     
  • IVAN LEITE LIMA
  • ENVIRONMENTAL VULNERABILITY TO LINEAR EROSIVE PROCESSES IN THE TIBIRIZINHO HYDROGRAPHIC UNIT: the case of the gullet on “Rua do Poço”, São Luís – MA.

  • Data: 30/01/2021
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  • Hydrographic Unit;  To understand environmental vulnerability and its influence on erosion processes; identify the causative agents and understand their relationship with the factors that contribute to the occurrence and evolution of gullies; analyze physical properties, such as: granulometry, soil and particle density and porosity, from soil samples collected in the field; investigate land use and coverage in the study area using thematic maps. In order to achieve the objectives set out, the technical-operational research procedures were followed, such as: office, field and laboratory work; bibliographic and cartographic survey. In the field work, the monitoring stakes were fixed at five different points and monitored throughout the research. Undisturbed soil samples were also collected for laboratory analysis. Maps, location, geology, geomorphology, curvature, soil, hypsometry, slope, land use and occupancy, rainfall indexes. An outline of the environmental vulnerability of the ‘Rua do Poço” gullet was also generated from the intersection of maps of geomorphology, soils and land use and coverage, considering three classes: low, medium and high vulnerability in the study area. As a result of the research, there was a significant advance for erosion in points 3, 4 and 5. Considering that the gullet is a deactivated mineral extraction area, some results of laboratory analysis, maps and monitoring could point out aspects relevant to the vulnerability impact to erosive processes in the “Rua do Poço” gully.

  • KATIUSE MENDES LOPES
  • CHEMINS DE PERCEPTION DE MON VILLAGE: Pindaí.

     

     
     
  • Data: 24/03/2021
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  • La motivation de ce travail de dissertation est venue de l’expérience que j’ai vécue dans le lieu Pindaí, comme une occasion de conserver la mémoire du lieu, d’y réfléchir et de suivre son évolution. Un processus systématique de matérialisation des informations pour les transformer en connaissances a permis d'enregistrer les souvenirs et les expériences vécues comme autant de fils conducteurs vers la perception de mon lieu de vie: Pindaí. Celui-ci est partagé entre deux municipalités, Paço do Lumiar et São José de Ribamar, toutes deux situées dans la meso-région nord du Maranhão et dans la micro-région de l'agglomération urbaine de São Luís, sur l'île du Maranhão; il s‘agit donc d’un village limitrophe établi au bord de la MA - 201. C'est face aux changements survenus dans le village de Pindaí au cours des 20 dernières années, qu'est apparue la préoccupation qui a motivé cette étude: à partir de l’expérience des sujets vivant sur le lieu, comment parvenir à la perception environnementale qui se manifeste dans la géographie vécue? Comment les transformations socio-spatiales sont-elles perçues par les sujets? Dans ce contexte, l’objectif général suivant se dessine: interpréter la perception environnementale qu’ont les sujets du lieu du processus de transformation socio-environnementale. Et les objectifs spécifiques: relever les tracés géographiques, historiques, culturels et socio-environnementaux; caractériser la configuration du village de Pindaí sur la base de données géo-référencées et de données descriptives des sujets du lieu; et enfin, de réaliser un portfolio numérique avec des images du quotidien prises durant un processus de construction participative sur le lieu. Une approche phénoménologique a été utilisée pour décrire le lieu, pour ressentir et interpréter la perception des sujets du lieu, et ainsi atteindre les objectifs mentionés ci-dessus, en se basant sur une recherche qualitative, une réflexion bibliographique et une recherche de terrain. Pour la confection des cartes, le logiciel Arcgis du laboratoire Geomap-Uema a été utilisé. Comme résultats obtenus à partir de ces dialogues et de ces réflexions, nous avons l'apport conceptuel théorique du lieu, les tracés géographiques, historiques, culturels et socio-environnementaux du Village de Pindai, avec la délimitation et la localisation de la zone d'étude, l'ascendance indigène Gamela (qui en étaient les premiers habitants), l'observation du schéma de construction des maisons, dont la plupart étaient faites de boue et de paille, les revenus qui proviennent essentiellement de l'agriculture, de l'extraction de noix de coco babacu et de la pêche, et l'identification du patrimoine archéologique comme le Camboa de Pedra et les Sambaquis qui sont liés à cet héritage des peuples originels. Une carte de la religiosité a été dressée, un aspect culturel très diversifié dont les principaux sont les cultes de la matrice africaine avec la présence du Terreiro de Mina et de l'Umbanda, les Eglises Evangéliques, principalement néopentecôtistes, et l'Église Catholique. Il a été constaté que le processus d'urbanisation a intensifié les changements visualisés sur la carte comparative de l'utilisation des sols avec l'augmentation de la surface bâtie ; d'autres changements dans le lieu sont perçus comme une modification des normes de logement et certaines implications environnementales (augmentation des déchets solides, élimination de la végétation et usure du fleuve Santo Antonio). On observe que la perception environnementale des sujets du lieu sur le processus de transformation socio-environnementale dans le village est très vivante, et qu’ils sont conscients des nouvelles formes de refermement sur soi, de la relation de voisinage et de la présence de violence et de drogues. Ainsi, les récits et les dessins des sujets du lieu ont permis l'interprétation de la perception environnementale et l'organisation du portfolio numérique, ce qui a permis d'améliorer la manière de penser le lieu et d'accroître la réflexion sur le lieu, et ainsi de consolider ce travail.

  • MATHEUS ANDRADE MARQUES
  • TRANSFORMATION OF URBAN SPACE: a socio-spatial and landscape analysis of the Ponta d'Areia Peninsula in São Luís (Maranhão, Brazil)

  • Data: 29/04/2021
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  • Our study aims to discuss the urban space, aiming to analyze the city of São Luís (Maranhão, Brazil), especially its socio-spatial organization, transformations and their implications for the Ludovicense society. Thus, the region popularly called the Ponta d'Areia Peninsula is used as the spatial cutout of the study. This area belongs to the Ponta d'Areia neighborhood, located north of the island of Maranhão, where the capital city is located. The Peninsula over the past fifteen years has undergone an intense process of landscape change in its territory, this fact in addition to reconfiguring the landscape of the place, also brought other dynamics of use for this space, for example: the appreciation of urban land and the implementation of luxury housing. This phenomenon is the result of a set of actions taken by important agents in this process of formation and transformation of the city territory, such as the State, the private sector, and society in general. Thus, the main objective of this research is to analyze the socio-spatial and landscape transformation of the Ponta d'Areia Peninsula, identifying the role of the aforementioned agents in this event, besides bringing to light the consequences for the population of the consolidation of this new territory that arises in the city of São Luís.  To achieve our goal, we make use of the geographic analysis category 'used territory', and through this, we seek to identify precisely the roles of the agents participating in this model of territorial management that occurs in the Peninsula, relating the case with logics of broader scales, involving the economic system that manages the globe, that is, capitalism. Therefore, we also resorted to the subsidies of the Marxist method to analyze the Peninsula, because factors such as private property, a very present phenomenon in this territory, relate to the aforementioned system. Therefore, the analysis was built from this approach, while the methodological procedures adopted are characterized according to a research of exploratory bias, having thus stages of bibliographic research in the databases of CAPES, SCOPUS and REDALYC; field work, making maps of the study area and interviews with representatives of public power in the municipal and state spheres. We have as results the verification that by virtue of a set of actions the Ponta d'Areia Peninsula had its territory reformulated, becoming the most expensive m² area of São Luís, thus being an important space for the implementation of practices of various markets, such as construction, which through large investments, transformed the place into a luxury residential area, being a great contradiction in the urban environment of São Luís, since the vast majority of neighborhoods in the capital of Maranhão do not follow the standards found on the Peninsula. 

  • RICARDO GONCALVES SANTANA
  • ENVIRONMENTAL FRAGILITY OF THE RELIEF TO URBAN OCCUPATION IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC SUB-BASIN OF RIACHO DO ANGELIM, SÃO LUÍS - MA.

  • Data: 29/04/2021
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  • The analysis of the environmental fragility of the relief to urban occupation is a fundamental theme for environmental planning, as it investigates fragile areas, with the intention of diagnosing them, considering the forms of occupation. As a result of the human being's performance in a significant and predatory way in the mischaracterization of the landscape, the result is interference in the morphodynamics, since the relief is occupied without previous studies with the fragility of the environment. In order to understand this dynamics, the hydrographic sub-basin of the Angelim stream was selected, which has 4.34 km² in its sandy dimension, located to the northwest of the Island of Maranhão, in the middle course of the hydrographic basin of the river Anil . In this sense, the objective was to analyze the environmental fragility of the relief to the urban occupation of the hydrographic sub-basin of the Angelim stream, São Luís - MA, by identifying the geoenvironmental parameters that influence the fragility of the relief, the patterns of occupation of the relief and understanding the interrelationships of the natural and social aspects of the study area. To achieve the proposed objective, bibliographic and cartographic surveys, organization of the work environment, field work and thematic mapping were carried out, through spatialization of geology data, soils, hypsometry, slope, terrain shapes, comparison of drainage, classification channels, relief units, land use and coverage, comparison of waterproofing, urban expansion over relief and legal transgressions. The socioeconomic characterization of the resident population and the identification of the environmental fragility of the relief to urban occupation was also carried out. Considering the methodological proposals selected for this work, with necessary adaptations and using the data of slope, morphology, land forms and land use and coverage, the map of environmental fragility of the relief to urban occupation was generated. The area under analysis showed 45.6% with medium emerging fragility and 54.4% with high emerging fragility to occupation. The class of high fragility stands out, as it refers to areas that have specific natural dynamics, added to land use and coverage, which can generate several environmental problems. Due to the scale of work, four sectors were selected distributed along the hydrographic sub-basin of the Angelim stream to carry out a more detailed analysis of the environmental fragility of the relief to urban occupation, which are located in the following locations: street Belo Horizonte - Angelim, Peace street - Bequimão, a stretch of road Jerônimo de Albuquerque - Angelim and street Tarquíneo Lopes - New Angelim.

2020
Descrição
  • ÂNGELA MARIA PINHEIRO DA SILVA
  • PROPERTY RIGHT: analysis of land policy in the Cidade Olímpica at São Luís

  • Data: 27/11/2020
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  • Landholding regularization is a process that aims to legalize the permanence of residents in urban areas occupied in an irregular manner for housing purposes. The city of São Luís, like other cities in Brazil, underwent an intense process of urbanization  between  the  1950s and 1980s, characterized by an accelerated, disorganized and unplanned form, resulting in urban swelling with sprawling and dispersed occupation in peripheral areas, causing a series of social, environmental, legal and urbanistic problems. With the high number of irregular dwellings and precarious housing in urban spaces, Brazil has regulated the right to decent housing and land regularization policies, which have been consolidated as public policies since the 1980s. The approach of this research consists in the analysis of Property Law, based on the occupation of Cidade Olímpica, focusing on the issuance of private property titles in  the neighborhood, through the Urban Land Regularization Program in São Luís. However, it should be noted that land regularization is not limited to the transfer of land titles. In order for this to occur in full, it must be articulated to urban regularization, encompassing interventions at the urbanistic, housing, environmental recovery and public services and community equipment levels.

  • ANTONIA REJANE CAVALCANTE MORAIS
  • SANDSTONE CAVES OF TASSO FRAGOSO AS A GEOTOURISTIC POTENTIAL

  • Data: 19/02/2020
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  • This work integrates data from the research developed in the municipality of Tasso Fragoso - Maranhão, aiming at the interpretation of the Speleological Heritage. The municipality compose elements of great importance for Geodiversity, fostering in its value and uniqueness, subsidizing the protection of its natural, historical and cultural heritage. This condition comes from the geographic events that result in the physiographic characteristics (geological, geomorphological, paleontological and speleological), which shelter the Cerrado fauna and flora, in addition to adding historical and cultural elements (records of rocks, splinters and religious manifestos), which it delegates the valuing of historical heritage of civilizations of an endemic character.  Based on the above, this research aims to identify all the contribution of this heritage that is revealed in Tasso Fragoso-MA, through the speleological survey, contextualizing its elements for its environmental interpretation, in the management of these potentials through the cataloging of information for the geotouristic practice. The procedures consist in the analysis of data collected in the field, composed of photographic records, collection of points from the surveyed places, to be congregated in the geotouristic inventory of the region. Undirected interviews are also conducted, whose objective is to express the interviewee's feeling, in a spontaneous conversation that reveals the true essence of the place on the part of its residents. Added to this is the making of georeferenced data, in addition to confirming the informations collected in the field, makes up the interpretation of the landscape. The result points to the incidence of medium speleological potential, according to the CECAV data, also composing data from the registered caves, which confirms the propensity of these occurrences in the municipality. In addition to this indication, the Tasso Fragoso caves have indicators of importance and relevance in the context of Geodiversity, corroborating the appreciation and knowledge of the wealth of this heritage. The speleological collection was developed in sandstones of the Balsas Group, specifically in the Piauí Formation, in the form of walls carved in this sedimentary lithology. These geomorphological aspects hold imposing riches that testify to the geological evolution of the Earth, revealing historical facts confirmed on the walls by the rock inscriptions, in addition to manifesting religiosity as the Cave Nossa Senhora de Fátima, as well as housing a specific fauna. In Tasso Fragoso an environmental picture of the Speleological Potential is confirmed as a testimony of the Natural, Historical and Cultural Heritage, in addition to composing a potential geotouristic collection, with principles that go far beyond the representation of the geodiverse scenario, triggering in the conservation of this collection.

  • CLEYNICE MARIA CUNHA COSTA
  • USE OF TERRITORY AND HOUSING ISSUE IN THE ISLAND OF MARANHÃO: the geographical situation of the residencial Cidade Verde I, Paço do Lumiar-MA.

  • Data: 11/08/2020
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  • The housing issue, in the urbanization process, is a key issue that demands efforts to break down the various factors and agents linked to its supply and disposition, which have direct implications for the socio-territorial formation of urban spaces. Residencial Cidade Verde I - RCVI, located in the municipality of Paço do Lumiar - MA, is a product of the various agents that contribute to this socio-territorial formation, on Maranhão Island, from the uses of the territory. For the RCVI case, the main agents are the State, based on housing policies, real estate developers, who define the location and impose market logic on the territory, and the social agents, represented by residents of the residential, who fight and conquer your rights and your space. The entire socio-territorial history of Ilha do Maranhão is driven by the dynamics incorporated through housing policies, which materialized in the territory through housing estates. São Luís, as a hub for the urban expansion of Ilha do Maranhão, reached high levels of demographic density and demand for space, especially in the 1980s and 1990s, when this urban expansion joined other municipalities on the island - São José de Ribamar and Paço do Lumiar - manifesting itself in housing estates. The municipality of Luminense, which used to be a rural population until the early 2000s, has as its landmark the urbanization of its territory, the installation of the Maiobão housing complex (1986), having in the 1990s the installation of other housing complexes stemming from policies Federal Government in partnership with the State. Associated with these spaces, spontaneous occupations, a manifestation of socio-territorial inequalities and access to housing, also increased. The territory of Paço do Lumiar became of potential value for real estate speculation. From 2009 with the PMCMV, several housing estates were installed in Paço do Lumiar, including RCVI (2015), forming new mobility and economic flows for the municipality. The housing complexes of the PMCMV are very important in combating the housing deficit, since they cover the social strata of lower purchasing power, and this program is an opportunity to access their own home. However, there are still some problems regarding the location and infrastructure of housing estates, especially tracks 1 and 2. Residents of RCVI, which belongs to track 2 of the Program, face difficulties in accessing goods and services, in mobility and in infrastructure. RCVI houses and roads. There is still a severe disarticulation among the municipalities belonging to Ilha, in the resolution of these problems that are metropolitan, since the majority of the population that resides in the PMCMV housing complexes in Paço do Lumiar, lived in São Luís and still maintains their workflows and in the capital.

  • DEUZANIR DA CONCEIÇÃO AMORIM LIMA
  •  

  • Data: 10/02/2020
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  • The landscape in the geographical context plays a fundamental role in the distribution of populations and in the use of space. Consequently, studies that seek to understand its units have become increasingly indispensable, especially for managing the sustainable use of the environment. The municipalities of Rosario, Axixá and Icatu together form the right shore of São José Bay where three important rivers flow, among which the Itapecuru River stands out for its size as well as its socioeconomic importance as it is the main source of water supply to the capital of Maranhão and other surrounding municipalities. In addition, these three coastal municipalities, included in the São Luís metropolitan region and which are also part of the Upaon Açu-Miritiba-Alto Preguiças APA, have extremely important physical geographical aspects for the coastal zone of the state, still lacking in of updated's studies and mapping. In view of this lack, this research aimed to make an analysis of landscape units through the use of geoprocessing, using the technique of map algebra. From the use of conventional methodologies, it was indispensable to develop an appropriate methodological proposal that met the expectation of the work when the clarity and objectivity of the results, since the map algebra precursors such as the Russians Isachenko and Reznikov (1996) and the Cubans Puebla et al. (2009) and Chávez & Puebla (2013) bring in their proposals much subjectivity. Through the methodology, then developed was made the Geological, Geomorphological, Vegetation and Slope characterization considering the relation of the environment with the proximity of the coastline. After that, the information plans corresponding to each geographic aspect were overlapped by applying map algebra using the ArcGis 10.2 program (license EFL 999703439), from which a total of 10 Landscape Units that were discussed according to their typological aspects and their use and coverage. In this sense, the developed methodology was very efficient regarding the clarity in the process of crossing the data in the algebra and its representations in the final map. The results indicated by the methodology could be validated through the CPRM geology shape considered more current than the IBGE that had been used in algebra and through the field truth.

  • JEAN CARLOS LOUZEIRO DOS SANTOS
  • FROM THE DRESS OF THE CLOTHS TO THE SCHOOL SIRENE: An analysis of the Anil neighborhood in the light of the place as a sociocultural fabric

  • Data: 20/02/2020
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  • In the context of economic activities linked to Brazilian industrialization at the end of the 19th century, the State of Maranhão, following this process, underwent relevant spatial transformations. São Luís is the city that most felt these effects, having strong growth due to the installation of textile factories in the outskirts of its urban area. One of these projects concerns the Rio Anil Spinning and Fabric Company. In this period, near the river Anil, the first great suburban neighborhood, the neighborhood Anil (GOMES, 1988) was witnessed. Especially between the 1940s and 1950s, the Anil district developed significantly, with a prominent social and leisure infrastructure, with educanders, colleges, cinemas, churches and the public market. Like many factories of the time, the Anil River Wool and Textiles Company did not resist economic obstacles and filed for bankruptcy in 1961. Long abandoned, in 1993 the building was renationalised for educational reasons, giving way to the Rio Anil Integrated Center - CINTRA. In this sense, this dissertative work has the objective of analyzing the Anil neighborhood as a socio - culturally woven place for all this spatial dynamics reported, understanding the symbolic centrality of the factory space. Thus, the geographic concern of the research on the neighborhood of Anil is to understand the processes and contexts that led to the refunctionalization and re-signification of the form of the former Anil River Factory, nowadays the current CINTRA school, which must have also changed idea of place of the agents constituting that space frame. Of course, the memorial representations of workers in that factory, of old and new dwellers and other space agents, such as educational agents, have much to tell us about the phenomenology of such a neighborhood-place (RELPH, 1979). In order to reach this knowledge, a bibliographical study and the accomplishment of field activity were the main methodological procedures adopted, the latter for the purpose of observation and photographic records, as well as for the construction of interviews. From the partial results obtained, it can be said briefly that the Textile Factory Rio Anil, when closing its activities, left deep marks in the population that lived there, being necessary still further analyzes from the historical-geographic point of view.

  • MOZART DE SA TAVARES JÚNIOR
  • THE PLACE OF INHABIT IN OS TAMBORES DE SÃO LUÍS, by Josué Montello

  • Data: 21/10/2020
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  • Josué Montello wrote in his Diary that the city of São Luís spills into his novels, and in Os Tambores de São Luís is no different. In this work, São Luís is the great rhythmic space of the narrative. It is and represents a geography that is everywhere, permeating social and cultural, collective and personal relations, especially Damião (main character), who lives the constant challenge of (re) building his identity and his people - blacks and slaves who dream and struggle to inhabit the places of the city based on a strongly symbolic imaginary, and which send them to African lands. In this connection, the drums of the city, through the imaginative world of Josué Montello and his pen of writing, make the phenomenological space of a São Luís deeply analyzed in its human condition. In such a way, based on perspectives of Literary Geography, this Dissertation aims to render the discussion initiated by Montello, and interpreted by several other agents of knowledge, shedding light on the place and the inhabitance of a race in a (un) known city, contributing, under general examination, on the question of how Damião and São Luís affectionately (re) constructed each other.

  • RAFAEL DE OLIVEIRA ARAÚJO
  •  

     
    POTENTIAL CHART OF SURFACE FLOW IN THE STREAM CAPIVARA HYDROGRAPHIC SUB-BASIN IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF IMPERATRIZ-MA
     
     

  • Data: 11/12/2020
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  • In this research, the Curve Number (CN) method, developed by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), was used to determine the estimated runoff potential based on information on use and occupation, types of soil present and the CN value of said method for the STREAM CAPIVARA SUB-BASIN located in the Municipality of Imperatriz. A time-space analysis for the period 2014 and 2020 was also used, based on geoprocessing techniques associated with morphometric analysis and socioenvironmental impacts, combining scientific knowledge and the diverse knowledge derived from the residents' experience. The highest levels of runoff are concentrated in the middle to lower portion of the basin in the districts Nova Imperatriz, Boca da Mata, Vila JK, Santa Rita, Santa Inês, Cinco Irmãos and in the José de Alencar and Santa Teresa stream reaching values of 143.13mm / month at 184,89mm / month. In these areas, the CN indices (number curve) were higher than 90-98, due to the intense waterproofing in urban areas. The lowest levels of runoff (18.35mm / month to 108.58mm / month) are restricted to areas with tree and herbaceous vegetation in the basin where the lowest CN values with 36 to 78 and areas of neossol soil were verified. The spatial analysis of 2014 and 2020 indicated that the urban expansion occurred in the west and northeast directions of the sub-basin towards the sub-basin of the Stream Bacuri e Stream Barra Grande and the changes registered in the forested areas for herbaceous vegetation were due to the formation of pastures for small farming and family farming with planting of vegetables and legumes. The SCS method showed favorable results considering that the areas of flooding in the basin are concentrated in the areas with greater runoff indicated by the referred method. The intensification of the waterproofing process in the basin has produced serious socio-environmental problems such as floods and to minimize this problem, it is suggested to adopt public policies with conservationist practices to subsidize urban planning.

     
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  • TELÉSFORO RODRIGUES MARTINS FILHO
  • SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VIOLENT CRIME AND SCHOOL PERFORMANCE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SÃO LUÍS-MA

  • Data: 17/12/2020
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  • The literature has pointed to education as a crucial element of crime prevention. In this sense, the goal of this study is to analyze the spatial relationship between violent crime and school performance in the city of São Luís - MA. In addition to a review of national and international literature on the main research topics, the methods were the creation of Thiessen polygons as units of analysis, with public schools in the municipality being the generating points. Using GIS, a spatial database was created with the variables: homicide occurrences, school performance based on IDEB, population density, presence of policing, and slums. Pearson's correlation, Moran's Global Index, linear, and spatial regression were employed in the study. The results indicate that the increase in school performance is associated with the prevention of lethal crime in the municipality of São Luís. The slum areas are associated with the increase in violent crime in the schools' area of influence. The results reinforce public policies that offer quality education to the population.

  • THIAGO DA ROCHA VASCONCELOS
  • EXPANSION OF HUMAN OCCUPATION AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS IN THE URBAN AREA OF MUNICIPALITY OF RAPOSA - MA

  • Data: 27/08/2020
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  • The coastal environment is characterized by its dynamism due to the natural aspects and / or the performance of society, whose relationship between these aspects in the geographic space is studied by several concepts, among them the environment, which allows to perceive the categories nature and society as a whole, a pertinent approach in the study of the coastal environment, since it is one of the busiest in the national scenario. In view of this discussion, the present research takes as an object of study the urban area of the municipality of Raposa, which is located in the north of the state of Maranhão. The locus of study represents the dynamics existing in the coastal environment, expressing the first occupational steps of the municipality in the late 1940s and early 1950s by migrants from Ceará, and the next occupational direction inland, establishing bases for the current configuration of the environment. Therefore, the research has as general objective to analyze the expansion of human occupation and its relations with the transformations of coastal environments in the urban area of the municipality of Raposa - MA. To achieve this goal, bibliographic and documentary research was used; satellite images from the years 1984, 1999 and 2018; mapping: the use and occupation of the soil; geomorphological; census variables; identification of environmental impacts; preparation of impact matrix, in addition to fieldwork; drone images and cabinet activity. In general, it was identified that there was an occupational increase in the study area, which is mostly in tidal flats, with the presence of mangroves and dune areas. In these spaces the growth of human occupation in the range from 1984 to 2018 was identified, with emphasis on recent processes of occupation of areas referring to Permanent Protection Areas (PPA), dating from the second decade of the 21st century. In relation to impacts, the research showed the interrelation between society and nature in the environment as a link of understanding, pointing to the presence of impacts with causes derived from society's action in nature; nature in society and between both. Most of the impacts were classified as negative, however, and there are also positive ones, mostly related to mitigating measures. As for the negative impacts, the most present are related to the deposition of solid residues and in natura depletion in the tidal plain area, which were related to the economic and social situation of the residents, when comparing the location of the impacts and variables by sector census, in the case of income and discharge of sewage directly into the sea. However, the negative impacts are not limited to the society / nature direction, but also in the nature / society sense, as in the case of coastal flooding processes, which affect residents who improperly occupy tidal flats, confirming the complexity of the environment studied, in constant transformation.

2019
Descrição
  • ALEX NUNES SILVA
  • Territories of Life in Raposa – MA: geosymbolism of Bilro Lace, Fishing Nets and Boats

  • Data: 19/08/2019
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  • Analyzing the territories of life at the municipality of Raposa is the main intention of this research. Located around 30 km distance from São Luís, situated at the north portion of Maranhão State, the municipality has its foundation related to migrations that had as main motivations the fishing. Given such favorable environmental conditions, the newcomers fishermen were responsible in articulate the arrival of relatives and fellow countrymen to the Promised Land, in which the rendeiras stands out. In the production of life in that space, tourism is another meaningful activity, in which is favored in one side for the natural resources as beaches, sand dunes, islands and mangroves, and in another side, for the association of touristic activities with the fishing and with the local handcraft  - the bilro lace. In such way, the territories and the territorialities (HAESBAERT, 2014) that interest to the study are linked to fishing, the rendeiras activities and the tourism. It is understood, therefore, that geosymbolism (BONNEMAISON, 2012) of bilro lace, fishing nets and boats mention what is life in Raposa, culturally speaking. In effect, it was aimed to generate interpretations about the territories and territorialities that spatialize the life over there. About it, the theoretical-methodological directions that here are followed come closer with the studies in what is called new Cultural Geography, field of study that search in engender researches that valorize the social representations about the geographical space (CLAVAL, 1997). About it, in what concern to the exam of the empirical field, such world views translated the history, the daily life, the problems and the feeling of belonging to Raposa, revealing physical and symbolic networks that work as keeper life. In this way, it is inferred the space and dynamic of Raposa’s space, coming through the perspective of men and women work, translate a complex, simple life, but plural, symbolic and territorial treating.

  • AUGUSTO ANTONIO CARVALHO CAMPOS
  • CONDITIONING OF EROSION PROCESSES IN THE URBAN AREA OF BURITICUPU-MA: The case the gully of the neighborhood Santos Dumont.

  • Data: 05/08/2019
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  • One of the most significant problems currently related to soils is erosion. This phenomenon despite its natural character has been intensified considerably by several irregular human activities, especially in urban spaces. In the municipality of Buriticupu, located in the western mesoregion of the state of Maranhão, the presence and aggravation of erosion processes is observed in the last decades. The research aimed to analyze the conditions of the erosive processes, more specifically of the gull in the Santos Dumont neighborhood, on the outskirts of the city. It also aimed to characterize soils degraded by erosion and to relate the natural elements to the anthropic actions as conditioners of gully. As methodological procedures, the steps of bibliographic research, field research, laboratory analysis and data interpretation were adopted. The natural determinants considered were: geology, soils, climate and relief. The anthropic ones were: the process of expansion of the urban area of the municipality, the type of infrastructure (streets, drainage and residences) and economic activities that cause environmental degradation. The study area presented irregular relief with slopes with high slope; soils with sandy-silty texture and low structuring; sedimentary geology formed by rocks little consolidated and climate with high rainfall indexes. Such environmental conditions generate a high susceptibility of the pedological cover to the erosive processes. In addition, there is a significant increase caused by poorly planned urban occupations with severe infrastructure deficiencies and inadequate and degrading economic activities. All these integrated elements configure themselves as conditions of the erosive processes by gully in the study area.

     

  • BRUNO NEVES MARTINS
  • PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATION OF VULNERABILITY TO SALT INTRUSION IN THE BOTTOM LINE OF BACANGA RIVER THROUGH THE GALDIT METHOD

  • Data: 28/01/2019
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  • Water is an indispensable source for human supply and through the ages the search for this resource has been intensified by the high demand for good quality water. The Bacanga river basin, located entirely within the limits of the municipality of São Luís, more precisely in the northwest portion of the Island of Maranhão, demarcated by the pairs of geographic coordinates: 2 ° 31'50.85 "S to 2 ° 34'34, 11 "S and 44 ° 18'14.22" W at 44 ° 28'92.00 "W, has a unique role in the public water supply of the municipality of São Luís. In this sense, the relationship between the drilling of tubular wells and the high exploitation of groundwater in the lower reaches of the Bacanga river basin, which may lead to the intrusion of the salt wedge into the Barreiras and Itapecuru Formation aquifers. For this, the proposed GALDIT method Chachadi and Lobo Ferreira (2001), used in several parts of the world, is used to analyze the hydrodynamic data of tubular wells, to evaluate the degree of vulnerability to salt intrusion, classifying it as high vulnerability ( ≥7.5), medium (5 -7.5) or low (≤5). The letters of the method reflect each parameter being analyzed, such as: G - Occurrence of the aquifer, A - Hydraulic conductivity; L - Piezometric level; D - Coast Line Distance; I - Current state of saline intrusion in the aquifer (Bicarbonates / Chlorides); and T - the thickness of the aquifer. For each letter will be added a weighting value ranging from 1 to 5. In this research the activities developed in the period from August 2016 to 2018 where the collection of database of the lower course of the Bacanga river basin were collected, tabulation and analysis of data, treatment and tabulation. The data were treated in the AquiferWin32 software to identify the parameters G - Occurrence of the aquifer and A - Hydraulic Conductivity; associated to data spatialization using spatial data interpolation techniques for the spatialization of the information collected. The results obtained through AquiferWin32 indicate that the aquifer of the area is classified as semi-confined, obeying the permanence curve proposed by Theis (1963), besides a Hydraulic Conductivity (K) ranging from 1.27x10-7 m / s 3.86 x 10-6 m / s which reflects a generally low to moderate productivity, according to the table proposed by Struckmeir and Margat (1995) and Diniz et al (2012). The parameter L - Piezometric Level in the study area showed a variation of the Static Level occurs from +44.2 m to -38.5 m indicating parameter values ranging from 2.5 to 7.5. The parameter D-Coast line distance in the study area the coastline variation occurs from 119 m (P-13) to 7,708.9 m indicating the value of parameter D the index of 2.5 to 7.5 and 10 according (CHACHADI E LOBO FERREIRA, 2001). For Parameter I, the field works for the identification of tubular wells, as well as for water analysis through the Aquaread AP800 multiparameter probe and samples of 6 (six) tubular wells sent to the laboratory, as well as data from wells registered by the State Secretariat of Environment - SEMA. It also presents 21 water samples with the salinity parameter of the bacanga dam, which indicate a water with salty characteristics and brackish water ranging from 22 ppt to 32,39 ppt. The results obtained through the GALDIT method demonstrate that the vulnerability to saline intrusion in the study area, for the most part, is found in the low to moderate vulnerabilities, however wells located in the northern region of the basin, more precisely, the P wells -13 and P-17, P-10 and P-28 presented a high vulnerability to saline intrusion, possibly due to its proximity to the coastline, as well as to the estuarine dynamics of the area, which leads to greater attention and monitoring in these areas. regions. The method presented satisfactory results for the research, demonstrating that it is reliable and easy to apply, as well as producing cartographic documents for better territorial planning for the conservation of groundwater resources in the Island of Maranhão.

  • CAROLINE SILVA DA CUNHA
  • A PARTICIPATIVE LOOK AT SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN VILA LUIZÃO, SÃO LUÍS/MA

  • Data: 23/08/2019
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  • This research took place in Maranhão Island, São Luís, Vila Luizão, an area that emerged in the early 1990s as a housing alternative due to the socio-spatial segregation experienced in the capital of Maranhão. This process governed by the logic of capitalist production, coupled with the controversial performance of the State, determined the emergence of spontaneous occupations led by low-income communities. The general objective is to analyze the main social and environmental problems of the area through participatory Environmental Education supported by the phenomenological approach and following indications of action research through circles of community dialogues. The theoretical foundations run across Thiollent (2004), Haesbaert (2004; 2014), Souza (2013), Saquet (2013), Diniz (1999), Ferreira (1999) and Maricato (1996), following the principle that the nature of The environmental issue is based on the understanding that society and the environment are inseparable, since it is the material world cut out by subjects who build different projects for the use and significance of space. As a result, we highlight the process of dialogue circles with community leaders in which socioenvironmental problems were discussed regarding socioenvironmental diagnosis, basic sanitation, water and health, solid waste (ecologically correct disposal); selective waste collection and composting in the Vila Luizão area. In this participatory context, we found several social and environmental problems that the community has faced in its territory, such as the lack of public services, several points of open dumps and lack of sanitation. This time, it is observed that the urban space is affirmed as a singular reference for the understanding and minimization of the social and environmental problematic in a collective way with the discussion and potentiation of actions from the action research, whose revealed a daily involving the relationships of power in the territory and algo exposure to serious health problems - caused by the lack of infrastructure to environmental quality.

  • CÍCERO HERMES BATISTA LOBO
  • Used Territory and Modernizations in São Luís Metropolis: the geographical situation of Sítio Grande

  • Data: 29/11/2019
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  •  O presente trabalho analisará o território usado e as modernizações na metrópole de São Luís a partir da situação geográfica do Sítio Grande. Embora situada numa região com atividades típicas do meio rural, o Sítio Grande tem sofrido nos últimos anos fortes transformações socioespaciais em decorrências de novos objetos e ações oriundos da dinâmica urbana da metrópole São Luís. Procuraremos analisar em que medida as mudanças socioespaciais na situação geográfica em questão podem revelar processos típicos da metropolização da Ilha do Maranhão. Para tal, realizou-se levantamento bibliográfico e documental, visitas técnicas à região e entrevistas. Usando o território como alicerce metodológico para desvendar as novas formas conteúdo na situação geográfica do Sítio Grande, apresenta-se uma proposta de periodização para análise do uso do território até seu atual processo de expansão e consequente influência sobre a formação das novas formas conteúdo na região de Sítio Grande, bem como análises sobre os circuitos da economia urbana e as relações socioespaciais do lugar.


  • DANYELLA VALE BARROS FRANÇA
  • Environmental Vulnerability to Floods in the High Course of the Santo Antônio Basin, Island of Maranhão

  • Data: 29/10/2019
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  • Geography is the science that seeks to understand the relationship between society and nature. Although it has been dichotomized over the years, this science has an integrative character. Among the geographical subfields, there are in urban geomorphology, studies that directly present the aforementioned relationship. In the urban environment, anthropogenic activity alters the landscape through the appropriation of geomorphological compartments by space producing agents, resulting in a highly unstable morphodynamics, causing problems related to erosion, inundation and flooding. Such phenomena affect the local population who become environmentally vulnerable. In order to understand this dynamic, the upper course of the Santo Antonio basin was chosen as a study area, which has 29.15 km2 and is located in the central-eastern portion of Maranhão Island. In this sense, the objective was to analyze the dynamics of the society / nature relationship through environmental vulnerability to flooding phenomena in the upper course of the Santo Antônio river basin, Maranhão Island through the characterization of geoenvironmental, social, occupation and alteration historical aspects. of landscape, correlation of physical and social attributes and identification of levels of environmental vulnerability to flooding in the study area. To reach these objectives, the methodology based on the dialectical method was followed according to the following procedures: bibliographic and cartographic survey, thematic mapping (soil sealing, drainage comparison, channel classification, direction of flow, hypsometry, slope, units). landforms, land distribution, rainfall distribution, land use and land cover, urban territorial expansion over land relief, flooding, social characterization maps and environmental vulnerability to flooding) and fieldwork (conducting interviews and identifying floodplains ). All these methodological procedures provided the results regarding the environmental vulnerability to floods in the upper course of Santo Antonio. Taking into account the morphodynamic methology of Tricart (1977), the process of occupation, the forms of use, the geoenvironmental characteristics and the urban infrastructure. The area of study generated a map of environmental vulnerability to flooding based on the ideas of Crepani et al (2001) with the necessary adaptations. From these methodological procedures important results were achieved, such as the identification of the space producing agents responsible for the landscape change, the morphodynamic resulting from the anthropic interventions in the environment, the socioeconomic profile of the resident population, the areas with the occurrence of sudden flooding and the levels of environmental vulnerability to these phenomena. Due to the work scale, four sectors were selected distributed throughout the study area, being located in the following neighborhoods: Cidade Olimpica, Jardim America, Jardim Tropical and Residencial Orquideas. All sectors showed had a predominance of high environmental vulnerability to flooding with occurrence of sudden flooding and material damage suffered by the population.

  • ELZA RIBEIRO DOS SANTOS NETA
  • Analysis of the landscape of the rio Tocantins river zone in the section of Hydroletrica of Narrows to the point of capacity of Suzano

  • Data: 29/11/2019
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  • The research aims to analyze the transformation process of the riparian zone in the section of Estreito Hydroelectric Power Plant to the water catchment of Suzano company, from the analysis of changes that occurred in the landscape in the temporal scale from 1997 to 2018, as a way to contribute. Understanding the processes that have developed over time causing changes in both physical and social aspects. It also aims to characterize the landscape elements that make up the riparian zone; identify the transformations of this landscape in the Tocantins river in different scenarios; and present an integrated analysis of this landscape. In this perspective, we present the theoretical foundation based on the discussion of the landscape category and integrated analysis in watersheds. Also noteworthy is the review of riparian zone concepts in both geographical and other environmental sciences and the environmental legislation in force in Brazil, Maranhão and Tocantins. It adopts the systemic methodological proposal and the application of geoprocessing techniques that allowed the elaboration of the cartographic products: location of the study area, delimitation of the riparian zone using as a physical element the hipsometry, location of the beaches in the searched path, lithostratigraphic units, relief , soils and slope. Field work with photographs of the study area by camera, visit to four (04) fishermen's colonies, two (02) boatmen associations and six (06) boatmen associations with interviews with representatives of each of these establishments. Theoretical and conceptual reflections of riparian zone are presented as a result; geological, geomorphological and pedological characteristics; land use and occupation in the riparian zone area that were divided into five (classes), namely: agriculture, exposed soil, urban use, vegetation and water; integrated analysis of the landscape in the riparian zone which made it possible to identify the vulnerability index in the riparian zone; the implications for social agents, especially the riverine ones, who use the river in their daily activities, whether for leisure or economic activity to support their families. Thus, it can be inferred that the changes in the riparian zone in the researched section occur not only in the physical, but also social, causing implications for both the environment and society.

  • GIZELE BARBOSA FERREIRA
  • INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OF THE LANDSCAPE OF THE RIO BLACK WATER BASIN - MARANHÃO - BRAZIL

  • Data: 28/11/2019
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  • The watershed is a natural catchment area of water, sediment and dissolved matter that converges the runoff from precipitation and materials to a single outlet point. It is structured from a set of sloping surfaces and a drainage network formed by watercourses that converge until it results in a single bed in its exutory. The basins can occupy different proportions and sizes articulating as units of space that are used for human use in various activities. It is in the territory defined as the watershed that the anthropic activities are established. Urban, rural or industrial areas tend to make up the main territorial occupations around the basins. The Rio Preto Sub-Sub-basin, in its total length of 5,235.61 km², undergoes alterations deriving from the anthropic processes that occur in it significantly altered the landscape object of study. To perform the integrated landscape analysis in the Rio Preto Sub-Sub-basin, it was necessary to survey the basin's physiographic aspects such as soil type, geomorphology, geology, climate, use and occupation typologies, vegetation cover, fluviometric and rainfall. , factors that contribute to water availability in a basin. In this sense, this research aimed to develop the integrated analysis of the sub-sub-basin of Rio Preto-MA, embodied in the landscape dynamics, with emphasis on the process of land use and occupation. The research identified environmental transformations from the social actors involved and integrated analysis of landscape elements. The results show that the anthropic processes act in imbalance with the environment significantly altering the landscape of the basin. The results show the advances of soybean and eucalyptus planting as well as the practice of burning as preparation of land for planting other crops. The Rio Preto Sub-Basin has been undergoing rapid landscape transformation processes since the insertion of soybean and eucalyptus. These activities have contributed to changes in water bodies and land use, resulting in environmental problems resulting from lack or inefficiency. management of the study area.

  • JEFFERSON DOMINGOS VIANA
  • STUDY OF FACTORS CONTROLLERS OF EROSIVE PROCESSES IN THE URBAN AREA: case of the gull in the city of Bom Jesus das Selvas/MA

  • Data: 05/08/2019
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  • This research had as objective to present the results obtained in the study of the controlling factors of the erosive processes in the urban area of Bom Jesus das Selvas / MA. The analysis of these factors contributes significantly to the knowledge about erosion in the study, relating them to the triggering agents that converge to advance the erosion denominated voçoroca on September 7, where there was the collection of soil samples, infiltration test and activities as registration photographic study area, application of questionnaires with residents, among others. For the accomplishment of this work, the following environments were used: 1 - Activity in the Cabinet, for bibliographical and cartographic survey, with the search of theoretical reference, as well as data and files for elaboration of maps; 2 - Field activities (which had as objective to carry out infiltration tests, soil sample collection, 8 undeformed and 38 deformed were collected for the soil morphological description, soil density, grain size and soil granulometric analysis; The results obtained indicated that the September 7 gully is influenced by the natural and human control factors, in which the characteristics of the slopes, declivity, land use and cover, hypsometry and soil typology were evidenced. By means of the soil analysis, it was verified that the predominant granulometric fraction in the gull is frank sandy clay, not being a highly susceptible soil to erosion, which indicates that other factors are more significant in action under erosion. In relation to soil density, the data showed a mean compaction, also reflecting a medium porosity. As for particle density, the data indicated that soil particles do not show resistance to exogenous agents, water being the main natural influencing agent, as well as man as an anthropic agent. egarding soil morphology, the results indicate that it is characterized as medium / sandy texture, small size and granular structure; its dry and wet consistency and in relation to the plasticity and viscosity indicated little variation, comprising aspects referring to a soil of medium to clay texture. The susceptibility map indicated the areas with the highest probability of occurrence of erosions, being confirmed in the field, with the presence of several erosive processes. The applied questionnaires indicated that the population understands as the causal agent of the erosion advance, the lack of actions of the public power, not reflecting to a large extent its participation as well as influencing the agent in this advance, nevertheless, affirm that this erosion has a solution and blocking its impact. This work culminated in a sum of efforts in search of data and information scarce in greater detail of the area of study, but despite the difficulty, obtained satisfactory results, which corroborates the need of study and continuous deepening in relation to this final work, for the subject.

  • JOSIANE RODRIGUES DOS SANTOS CABRAL
  • Route of Emotion: an analysis of the tourist activity in the Municipality of Paulino Neves (MA)

  • Data: 30/09/2019
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  • The study of the tourist activity in the bias of the geographic thought makes possible to verify its dynamicity in the society and incidences that can cause in the territories and economic, cultural and political implications. This research analyzes the tourist activity in the municipality of Paulino Neves / MA, from the perspective of the Route of Emotions. This research analyzes the tourist activity in the municipality of Paulino Neves / MA, from the perspective of the Route of Emotions. For the development of the research it was necessary the bibliographic survey that covers the Geography and the Tourism and documentary survey.  The dialectical method was chosen to verify conflicts of interest among the various agents involved in the activity. As a methodological procedure, field activities were also carried out to perform semi-structured interviews and photographic records between December 2017 and April 2018, June 2018, June 2019 and the construction of maps in Arcgis software in the Geurb/Geomap-Uema laboratories. In addition to visits to SEBRAE, IMESC, Secretary of Tourism of Maranhão, Secretariat of Tourism of the Municipality of Paulino Neves and Government Institutions to obtain data referring to the tourist elements of the study area. The research is classified as qualitative to cover the various views and information of social agents, who work with the local tourism and the community resident in Paulino Neves. The results indicate that the Paulino Neves Municipality has relevant natural, cultural and social attributes, but it presents intense interdependence with its neighboring areas, Barreirinhas (Lençóis Maranhenses) and Tutóia. The tourist practice in the locality has an incipient form of infrastructure created due to other uses of the territory such as the performance of Omega Wind Energy. With the Emotions Route, the local entrepreneurs believe in increasing the flow of tourism through the construction of the MA-315 State Highway, requiring a partnership of managers, community and involved with the sector to develop actions in a more enterprising way for the training professional and investments of tourist infrastructure in Paulino Neves, enabling the municipality to overcome its current situation as a tourist destination. Emphasis is placed on the importance of spatial planning by means of tourism planning in order to achieve medium- and long-term results in order to achieve positive results for the municipality.

  • JUCÉLIA MARIA ROCHA OLIVEIRA

  • OLD AND NEW CAMPONESIAN TERRITORIALITIES UNPRECATED PIAUIENSE: the settlement challenges of the Fazenda Flores-PI Settlement Project by staying on land

  • Data: 29/08/2019
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  • The cerrado of the southwestern Piaui mesoregion has been the scene of transformations in recent decades with the process of expansion of the agricultural frontier. This process was driven by a series of investments and state tax incentives aimed at modernizing agriculture that contributed significantly to the appropriation of the cerrado Piauiense by the dynamics of agribusiness. The impacts of this new structure are felt mainly in the countryside, as it tried to further aggravate the land structure as the land in the cerrado area becomes more and more valued, intensifying land concentration and consequently land grabbing. The Fazenda Flores Settlement Project, from where we started to understand the new dynamics that are taking place with the advance of the agricultural frontier in Piauí, is located between the municipalities of Currais and Bom Jesus, which stand out among the main soy producers in the state. . In this bias, we analyze the challenges found by the settlers for the conquest and permanence in the Fazenda Flores settlement. To achieve this objective, the following investigative process was carried out: a) theoretical and methodological research on frontier, rural settlements; b) search of official documents, in organs such as INCRA, which revealed the process of constitution of the Fazenda Flores Settlement; c) Data collection on official IBGE and INCRA websites; d) fieldwork with semi-structured interviews with the settlers, allowing to know the historical process of creation of the settlement, the way of life and the reading that the farmers make of the present challenges to stay in the territory, as well as interview with INCRA representative and the Pastoral Land Commission that contributed to the understanding of agrarian reform and the struggle for land in Piauí in view of the advance of the agricultural frontier. With this investigative process it was possible to understand that the farmers of this settlement face difficulties since the conquest of the land and after the consolidation of the PA they face the challenges of staying in the territory, because while incentives are directed to boost agribusiness, the settlers resist the land. without assistance, without public policies and in cases of grilagem that leaves them insecure about the future of the settlement.

  • KELLY CRISTINA MELO DE CARVALHO
  • PIAUÍ TERRITORIAL PLANNING AND REGIONALIZATION: An Analysis from the Territories of Development

  • Data: 17/10/2019
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  • According to Complementary Law No. 87, of August 22, 2007, which establishes Participatory Territorial Planning for Sustainable Development, the state of Piauí was divided into "Development Territories". A regionalization model in which the mentioned state, which has 224 municipalities, was divided into 11 Development Territories aiming at the decentralization of public management with the intention of bringing government and society together. An art that aims to achieve sustainable development by identifying the needs and potential of each territory with the aim of reducing regional inequalities. In order to understand the regionalization adopted by the state of Piauí, a search for the concepts of region was necessary. Because it is a polysemic concept, the term region can be understood in several ways. For Corrêa (1986), region is one of the most traditional concepts of geography. The study of the Development Territories also refers us to the concepts of regionalization and planning. With this regionalization adopted by the state of Piauí, the question of territorial planning and planning is analyzed mainly by the search for identity among the municipalities of the same region of the state. In this development strategy, besides the participation of the government, the participation of the municipality and civil society is fundamental; but this participation of the civil society does not always happen in fact, since a great part of the population does not know this policy of participative planning. For this reason, this research analyzes the changes that occurred with the regionalization adopted by Piauí, especially in the municipalities. We can not understand regionalization without first understanding region. Geiger (1969, p. 5) differentiates them as follows: "regions are differentiated portions of the earth's surface and regionalization is the present form of region formation." We thus understand, regionalization, as the processes that happen within a region and that compete for its formation. With the development process that is happening, regionalization and planning aim at the organization and administration of the areas, as a way to develop the potential and overcome the difficulties of each region. Aiming at developing potentialities and overcoming the problems encountered in the regions, the population, which has the power to participate through council meetings, contributes to the better planning of the territory, since civil society experiences these difficulties and has the opportunity of pointing them out and proposing improvements in the territorial units defined. The lack of information of the population is among the main obstacles for the planning and development of the territories, since there are no regular resources destined to each territory. In interviews carried out at the Secretariat of Planning of Piauí (SEPLAN), a representative speaks: "to make policies leave the central axis, from headquarters, and can reach small units", so we can see that the change in management dynamics is an important point in this model of regionalization that, by decentralizing management, tries to reach the Development Territories in a more egalitarian way.

     

  • RENATA MARIA SOUSA CASTRO
  • Evaluation of natural vulnerability to marine intrusion of the coastal aquifer of São Luís - MA

  • Data: 28/08/2019
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  • The study area is the coastal strip to the north of the city of São Luís, which runs from mouth of the Anil river to the municipality boundary. The study area is located to the north of the Island of Maranhão, on the western coast and is bathed by the San Marcos Bay, an area intensely influenced by the coastal dynamics. This research intends to analyze the vulnerability to the marine intrusion of the São Luís coastal aquifer, using the GALDIT method, to zon the areas of high, moderate and low vulnerability to marine intrusion. To determine the vulnerability to salt wedge entry it was necessary to obtain the data referring to the characteristics of the type of aquifer; hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer; depth of groundwater; piezometric level; distance to the coastline, the impacts of the current state of the marine intrusion in The spatial trim of the study area, which is located north of Maranhão Island on the western coast and is bathed by São Marco's Bay, is the coastal strip north of the city of São Luís, delimited from Anil River's outfall until the limit of the municipality; this area being strongly influenced by the coastal dynamics. This research carried out the analysis of vulnerability to the marine intrusion of the coastal aquifer of São Luís, using the GALDIT method to separate the areas in high, moderate and low vulnerability. In order to determine the vulnerability to saline wedge entry, it was necessary to obtain data referring to the characteristics of the aquifer type, namely: hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, distance to the coastline, aquifer thickness, current state of marine intrusion in region and piezometric level, as well as depth and quality of the groundwater. In order to obtain enough data, the physical-chemical data of the tubular wells, available in Grant Terms made available by the State Secretary of the Environment of the State of Maranhão, was used as a preliminary analysis form. With the provided data, three profiles of geological substrates were elaborated through the analysis of data from the spreadsheets with a stratigraphic column of 32 (thirty two) wells in private properties, which provided the indication of lithological and hydrodynamic characteristics of the semi-confined aquifer Itapecuru and the free aquifer Barreiras, in addition to its associated water banks along São Luís coastal strip. Two forms of spatialisation were used: the first through data interpolation by IDW and the second form through the intercession of polygons. In both forms of mapping it was observed that areas with greater number of tubular wells or higher population density presents medium and high vulnerability closer to the coastal range. It was also observed that the parameters that most influenced the GALDIT index were the parameter L (piezometric level) and parameter D (coastline distance), which demonstrates that the weight attributed to these two parameters greatly influences the final result. This information on the vulnerability of aquifers indicates not only the need to perform monitoring on tubular wells, but an urgent need of management application in the exploitation of groundwater as a whole, considering flow capacity and daily pumping time. Caution in groundwater exploitation is utterly necessary in order to maintain and conserve the quality of fresh water, based on a sustainable management of the coastal zone for the protection of groundwater resources in Maranhão Island.

2018
Descrição
  • ALEXSANDRA MARYLLEN ROGES COSTA FALCÃO
  • URBAN - RURAL TERRITORIALITIES: Development of Agribusiness and Its Socio - Spatial Modifications in Balsas / MA


  • Data: 26/04/2018
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  • The present master 's research aimed to investigate the transformations suffered in the territory and the insertion in light of the globalized market with deepening in the specific case of soybean production and its socio - spatial repercussions in the city of Balsas / MA. It was sought to understand the territorial dynamics considering the changes anchored in the triple alliance between capital, the State and the market, in an interpretation of the reality based on the understanding of the different territorialities produced in the interface of urban and rural space. The activities born within these spaces become increasingly interdependent with an instrumental reason that is thought to be global. In this specter, how and in what way the territory is built up rebounds in the needs of an external demand, to the places that through the capital employed modifies the relations between the countryside and the city and the way in which the power in the territory is understood. We emphasize that for its realization we go through the methodological path centered on the dialectical method, with a qualitative approach, privileging procedures such as the realization of semi-structured interviewing techniques. For that, we used as theoretical reference, different aspects in what is understood by territory, approaching authors such as Costa (2002, 2004); Saquet (2007); Elias (2003, 2006), Gonçalves (2002, 2004, 2006) who contributed to the perception of how the territory changes over time. But the research in question relies on the concepts employed by Souza (1995, 2001, 2013) who works on the notion of territory and deterritorialization by the way of power. It was also noted that in the analyzed region the diffusion of agribusiness, institutional action, the evolution of science and technology associated with the migration flow were determinant for the expansion of the soybean production chain. What has impacted the society and economy of the city, with the growth of the area planted with soybeans in the South of Maranhão, there is a growth of the formal labor market, as well as that of the sector trade and services. It was also noted that agribusiness is carried out in a conservative and exclusive manner, even though soybean has advanced, denying the peasant territorialities, social reproduction is present, in a local scenario that allows analyzing the contradictory relations in its bulge.

     

  • CARLOS DAVID VEIGA FRANÇA
  • FIRE HAZARDS: DIAGNOSIS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF SÃO JOSÉ DE RIBAMAR- MA
  • Data: 20/12/2018
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  • The fire represents a real and growing threat to people's lives and its causes are in some way linked to the precariousness of public services, triggering a series of social problems that are in many cases related to dangerous situations. The urban hydrant is considered one of the main mechanisms in reducing the vulnerability of the areas subject to the disasters caused by the fires. In this context, it should be noted that the production and reproduction of the Greater São Luís-MA region was accompanied by risks, human, material and environmental damages, among others; result of the growth, without ordered planning, of the urban spaces that compose the island. In this area of the society of risk, the municipality of São José de Ribamar is inserted, in which the anthropic interventions in the organization of the geographic space show the production of risks and situations of vulnerabilities to the fire. Therefore, the present study analyzes the risk of urban fires in the Municipality of São José de Ribamar based on the records of the period of 2015 through remote sensing products, geoprocessing techniques and elaboration of fire risk index. In order to do so, the aim was to identify the types, locations and incidence of occurrences, to diagnose the vulnerabilities of urban measures against fire, as well as to map the areas of risk and the locations of occurrences of fires. In order to reach the proposed objectives, the present research presents an exploratory nature with a quantitative-qualitative approach, since it prioritized to point numerically the location, frequency and intensity of the specialized assistance in a given geographic space. The data obtained comprised the temporal cut of January of 2015 - December of 2015, through the daily extract of attendance of the 1st CIBM that focuses on occurrences valid by type and place of attendance. Data were collected and tabulated in the Excel program. Descriptive statistics were elaborated and the thematic maps were drawn up, highlighting the occurrence maps, fire hydrant area and fire risk with the help of QGIS tools for cartographic representations of the events raised. Based on the partial results, it was evident that during the period of analysis of the occurrences of the year 2015, fire losses were characterized in 39 districts of the municipality of São José de Ribamar (MA), which in turn were affected by at least one of the five categories of fire (vegetation, garbage, LPG leakage, residence and vehicle), with the aggravation of such events materializing in neighborhoods with high population densities and distant from fire prevention and combat resources, in addition, the area covered by fire hydrants urban areas for this municipality has twelve water points, and only two of these are operational

  • CRISTIANE MOUZINHO COSTA
  • Risk of floods in the upper Anil river basin, São Luís - Maranhão

  • Data: 31/10/2018
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  • Flood risk has been a subject widely studied and debated by different fields of science due the harm of people and goods and consequent impact on economic activities, communications and social experience of the affected populations. Floods are characterized as the most impacting disasters of greatest occurrence in the world. The municipality of São Luís, capital of the state of Maranhão, has more than three decades presenting flood-related disasters that increase both in frequency and intensity. Thus, in the present study, the risk of flooding in the upper Anil river basin, located in the municipality of São Luís, in the north-central portion of the island of Maranhão, was studied. The objective was to analyze the risk of flooding in the area based on the estimated flood hazard and vulnerability of the study area. For this, the census tracts of the area in question were used as the unit of analysis. For methodological procedures to reach the objectives, it was used: the cartographic research; newspaper research; organization of the work environment; characterization of the geoenvironmental aspects of the study area; carrying out fieldwork; conducting interviews; adaptation of the maps of location, drainage, relief and forms of terrain, hypsometry, and clinography; and mapping of conflicts of land use, flood spots, hazard, vulnerability indexes, vulnerability, risk; and analysis of the coefficient of determination R². Through the present methodology, seven flood spots mapped throughout the research were obtained, as well as the estimated flood hazard from the 30m flood level, obtained through the mapping of flood spots and field work. In addition, the vulnerability index of the study area was obtained through the census variables related to socioeconomic characteristics, which grouped generated seven vulnerability variables. After this, considering that the risk is a function of the hazard and the vulnerability, the flood risk index of the upper Anil river basin was obtained by census tracts, with the risk classified as: very high, high, medium and low/zero. As a way of analyzing the proportions in which independent variables explain the dependent variables, the coefficient of determination R² was applied between the variables risk and risk, vulnerability and risk, and hazard and vulnerability, in which three dispersion plots were generated. In this way, it can be concluded that the sectors that presented a very high risk did not necessarily show very high vulnerability values, but all the census tracts with very high risk presented a very high risk, this is explained, since the risk has a higher coefficient of determination in the risk than vulnerability. In addition, the flood area does not reach all the census tracts, in this way, areas with very high vulnerability, but with zero danger, did not present flood risk. However, based on the classification of vulnerability, it is possible to identify the priority census tracts, which are of paramount importance for municipal and state management, in order to subsidize public policies for these populations.

  • DANILLO JOSÉ SALAZAR SERRA
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     THE TOURIST POTENTIAL OF BOQUEIRÃO IN ICATU-MA: DYNAMICS OF NATURE AND COMMUNITY

  • Data: 09/05/2018
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  • The dissertation has as its theme the development of community tourism in the quilombola village of Boqueirão in Icatu-MA, located in the Geographical Meso-region of the North Maranhense / Geographic Microregion of Rosario. Tourism is an expanding sector that revitalizes activities in the localities where it is inserted, causing social, economic and environmental impacts at different scales. Community tourism aims to minimize them by seeking an ecologically balanced environment with the integration of the communities that receive the flows into the process of managing the activity. Currently, Icatu is among the eighty less developed municipalities in Maranhão (IMESC, 2014), although it has potential for community tourism that may contribute to the modification of this scenario. The research is aimed at understanding the impacts of conventional tourism and the social relations existing in the village. The dialectical method was chosen because it allows to analyze the conflicts of use of the territory and the understanding of the man under the procedural perspective. The study of Tourism Cargo Capacity (CCT) of Cifuentes (1992) and the Visitation Impact Management (MIV) of the ICMBio (2011) were used as tourism management tools. As a research technique, thirty forms and twenty-one semi-structured interviews were applied with residents and visitors and thus perceive the visions of the agents involved. For Creswell (2010), the research is exploratory in nature and is classified as a qualitative quantile, considering the paths adopted. It was found that 90% of the residents interviewed believe that tourism can generate income for the community, made up of 63 families. The impacts of conventional tourism in the village grow exponentially, but the community seeks alternative management to minimize such as: signaling, reforestation initiatives, construction of collective to meet tourist demand, among others. With the study of CCT and IVM it was possible to establish tourist management parameters such as the number of daily visitors to the current conditions of the attraction that is 125, but that can increase to 1,050 with the interventions proposed as an example: construction of suspended bridges and diversion of access to attractiveness. With the management, the community can raise the initial value of R $ 42,000 per month when considering only the weekends with maximum use. It should be emphasized that the values raised by the community with tourism currently serve for the improvements in attractiveness, construction of the headquarters of the residents' association and construction of the community church. It is concluded that the results presented to the community and discussed in assemblies provide guidelines for the efficient management of tourism, resulting in interventions in the territory.


  • EDILANA WASNEY VIEIRA
  • TOURISM AND USE OF THE TERRITORY IN POLO MUNIM, MARANHÃO: Dynamics and socio-spatial perspectives.

     

  • Data: 01/03/2018
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  • Aiming to establish the development of tourism, the Maranhão State Government launched in 2010 the second version of the Tourism Development Plan of Maranhão (Major Plan 2010-2020), which proposes to promote tourism that unit of the Federation according to characteristics and municipal potential grouped in the form of tourist centers. In this context, the Munim Polo is inserted, consisting of six municipalities (Axixá, Cachoeira Grande, Presidente Juscelino, Icatu, Morros and Rosario), whose main reference is the Munim River. The objective of this research is to analyze the dynamics of use and occupation of Polo Munim in the period from 2010 to 2017, providing subsidies for territorial management actions. We also sought to identify the uses of the tourist territory in the municipalities belonging to the said Pole; understand plans, programs and public policies aimed at the development of tourism in the Munim Polo; analyze the main conflicts of the tourist territories pertinent to the Pole. In order to reach the proposed objectives, it was used the dialectic, which allowed a dynamic and totalizing interpretation of reality considering that social facts can only be understood from political, economic, cultural, etc. contexts. For that, the methodological procedures adopted were: bibliographical and cartographic survey; documentary survey; field work; Open interviews; selection, analysis and interpretation of data. The results pointed out that the regionalization proposed by the Major Plan acquires a false developmental concern, since tourism is practiced in the municipalities without planning by the state, municipal and civil society managers. What is proposed by the Major Plan remains something only described in official documents, of a rhetorical nature since, in practice, the visitation takes place in a spontaneous and unstructured way, not very inclusive in the sense of enabling the participation of the communities, which is reflecting a tourism model that has low economic and social multiplier effect

     

  • GILBERLENE SERRA LISBOA
  • Processos erosivos. Linha de transmissão. Município de São Luís.

  • Data: 11/09/2018
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  • The research aims to analyze the erosion processes by gully process in the power transmission line of the indirect influence area of the transmission line (230 kV) in the municipality of São Luís-MA. The methodological procedures included: bibliographic survey; field activity; preparation of thematic maps; laboratory analysis; of infiltration rates. The methodology used for the analysis of attributes was as follows: the soil description manual of Santos (2015) and Oliveira (2011), for the following characteristics: color, texture, structure (shape and size), consistency and stickiness . The physical attributes of the soils collected in the gully process were performed considering the following properties: soil bulk density, particle density, total porosity, grain size, according to the EMBRAPA soil analysis manual (2011) and the Blake volumetric balloon method; Hartge (1986) and Bowes (1986), the chemical attributes pH and organic matter EMBRAPA (2017). The infiltration tests were carried out according to the procedures presented by Hills (1970) and the Guerra proposal (2011). In the Transmission Line, different erosional features were identified, such as the Torres 1, Torres 2, Sacavém, BR 1 and BR 2 gullies. The origin and development of these processes are related to the implantation of electric power towers, erosion control factors, erodibility, erosivity, vegetation cover, land use and management, and slope. The predominant morphological attributes in the erosions were: red and yellow soil color; texture between medium, sandy and clayey; subangular shapes and varying small and medium sizes; consistency of the soil are mostly soft, very friable, slightly plastic, slightly sticky. In these erosive processes the physical attributes such as the apparent density of the soil varied between 1.28 to 1.96 g / cm³ being in the gull BR 1, the density of particles varied between the limits 2.35 g / cm3 in the gullies Towers 1 to 3,33 g / cm³ in the same gully. In relation to the porosity, the lowest value is 26% found in the gull BR 1 and the highest value was found in the gullies Torres 1 (point 2) of 52.25%, the particle size with sand fractions and textures ranging from sandy loam, franc silt and sand. The infiltration rates in the erosive features showed significant results in the Sacavém gullies, BR 1 and BR 2, where water infiltration rates in the soil are more accelerated. The occurrence of the incisions is related to the power line towers and irregular occupations along the range of easement, as well as the geoenvironmental characteristics of the area in question.

  • GUSTAVO ALEXSANDRO RODRIGUES RAPOSO
  • Characterization of marine and sub-erosional processes on the cliffs of Panaquatira and Olho D'água, Maranhão / Ma

  • Data: 05/12/2018
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  • The coastal environments in its totality have a dynamism and capacity for material and energy exchange flows that can rapidly change the landscape characteristics of a place in a short period. The study of coastal erosion processes has as one of the finalities to subsidize information mainly concerning human occupation in the coastal zones. The active cliffs are features that are important sources of sediment for the beach area (prism of the beach) and have its erosive activity associated mainly with the abrasive power of the wave's impact. However, not only the marine abrasion establishes the erosion on cliffs and the subaerial processes exert a determining function in the erosive dynamics. Considering that the monitored cliffs during the research are located in the island of Maranhão, with irregular rainfall dynamics (rainfall concentrated in the first semester) erosion through weathering is more pronounced during the first months of the year. During the research, it was tried to perform procedures in order to better elucidate the erosive processes in the cliffs. These procedures consisted of the topographic survey, as well as monitoring by erosion pines in order to establish the volume quantity of eroded sediment and granulometric analysis of the beach prism and the face of the cliff.

  • JONAS JANSEN MENDES
  • Dynamics of the landscape in the Aurá river basin: a study from the GTP model

  • Data: 22/08/2018
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  • The research investigates the landscape dynamics of the Aurá river basin in the state of Maranhão, using the GTP (Geosystem-Territory-Landscape) model, which is complex and diverse, requiring three inputs, naturalistic, socioeconomic and sociocultural relations that are related in the construction of the integrated geographic space, in the attempt to approach society and nature, seeking a sustainable management of the environment. The basin of the river Aurá has an area 1,184.59 km ² belongs to the region of the Atlantic Northeast West, being of relevance for the recreation, navigation and production of fish in the region. The methodological procedures of the research were based on bibliographical, cartographic and field research, and it was possible to hold informal conversations with farmers and fishermen in the region in order to understand the territorialities and tensions that emanate in the area under study, as instruments of research, questionnaires were applied to members of municipal governments that contributed to the formulation of the municipal environmental management index (IGAM) and interviews with key residents to investigate the problem. The results revealed that the area is characterized as a broad plain with a smooth to slightly undulating slope, highlighting strong undulations of the hills in the northeastern portion of the watercourse of the lower course of the basin that are constituted by the sandy sediments of the Barreiras Group. The geological conditions, due to the predominance of the Itapecuru Formation and hydrogeological substrate with low to medium potential for public supply, related to the hydrological behavior of the rivers, of intermittent character, mainly in the drought period, intensifying the water problem in the basin under study. Territorial dynamics occur through the exploitation of natural resources and are closely related to flood periods. The process of buses contributes to the reduction of the water table, directly affecting the economy of the municipalities of the medium and low course. In the analysis of the landscape, it was concluded that the countryside is the element present in the collective memory, that developmental interventions have brought socioeconomic impacts on the way of life of the population and are triggers for territorial tensions. The knowledge of these natural imperatives, added to the socioeconomic conditions of the municipalities built over centuries of history, are indispensable elements for municipal governance and the search for transformations in the regional conjuncture of poverty in the Baixada Maranhense, improving the quality of life and the conservation of nature.

  • KADJA RÉGIA SILVA LIMA
  • The Hidrogeomorfologicos and socio-environmental aspects of Lagoa do Bacuri in the East Maranhão

  • Data: 31/01/2018
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  • The analyzes of the hydrogeomorphological attributes are fundamental for the understanding of the dynamics of river and lake environments. The hydrographic basin, in its systemic structure, provides the morphological alterations of its area, since the rivers shape the terrestrial surface, from its drainage network due to the occurrence of erosion, transport and deposition of materials. The Bacuri lagoon, located in the Northeastern sector of the State of Maranhão, originated from the Buriti riverblock by the sediments deposited at its mouth by the Parnaíba river. The present research had the objective of analyzing the hydrogeomorphological and socioenvironmental aspects of the Bacuri Lagoon and its surroundings, located in the territory of the municipalities of São Bernardo and Magalhães de Almeida. Therefore, the main natural and anthropic aspects responsible for the alterations of this lacustrine environment were characterized by the mapping of land use and occupation in the surroundings of the study area, evaluating the level and types of pollutants in this water body, by means of collection and biochemical, physical-chemical and organic analysis of samples collected in the Bacuri Lagoon, in order to identify the changes of use and possible environmental impacts resulting from the new productive activities developed in the area in question. In order to reach the proposed objectives, we adopted the following methodological procedures: the delimitation of the Buriti River Basin, where the lagoon is located, using Shurttler Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) images; elaboration of the land use and cover letter for the years 2000, 2009 and 2016, using Landsat satellite images (resolution 5 m) using geoprocessing techniques; field activities with the application of interviews and photographic records; laboratory analysis specialized in contamination by pesticides in the lagoon waters considering the parameters of Resolution CONAMA357 / 05. The results indicate the economic and social aspects of the communities through graphs and tabulations, the increasing advance of the sojicultora and familiar agriculture toward the lagoon margins resulting in the displacement of the extensive livestock to the places with riparian forests that characterize Permanent Preservation Areas ( APP's) characterizing environmental crime that end up resulting in the alteration of the local landscape, in the very modification of traditional activities, with the consequence of the most different imbalances in this environment which will be presented in this scientific work.

  • KARLLA FABIANNA LIMA SANTOS
  • FROM DELTA TO SMALL LENZOONS: the production and consumption of the tourist space in Tutóia (Maranhão)

  • Data: 14/12/2018
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  • Tourism is one of the activities that has the capacity to materialize the process of production of the space, as well as propitiates that the increase of the revenue of the State is possible from the social practice of tourism. For this reason, planned and public interventions (or not) happen in the sense of transforming space into tourist territories; In this context, the municipality of Tutóia, located on the Eastern Coast of Maranhão, is included. The Plan of Integral Development of Tourism in Maranhão-Plano Maior (MARANHÃO, 2000) was included in the Delta Tourist Pole of the Americas, together with municipalities of Paulino Neves, Maranhão Freshwater and Araioses. The objective of this dissertation is to analyze the production and consumption of tourism spaces, based on the main instruments of tourism public policies, as well as to analyze the spatial dynamics of the municipality of Tutóia. The use of the dialectical method allowed arriving at an identification and later to an understanding on the conflicts and contradictions that come from the process of the tourist development. For that, the methodological path covered involved: 1) bibliographical, documentary and cartographic survey; 2) structured and open interviews with the agents of production of the tourist space: the tourist trade of Tutóia, the tourist, the community, and the public managers of tourism; 3) collection of geographical points for the production of thematic maps; 4) fieldwork for technical visits, acquisition of documentary material and photographic record; 5) dialogues with social agents directly involved with tourism. The results pointed out that, despite the great potential of the place and the fact that operators are significantly expanding their equipment and services, municipal management is out of alignment with the tourism trade, and this in turn still does not prioritize the development of tourism, which creates much conflict between these two agents. The conclusion of this dissertation revealed a scenario unfavorable to the production and consumption of the tourist space in Tutóia, starting from the conjecture that the inefficiency and absence of the municipal public power competes for the exclusion of the municipality of the Brazilian Tourist Map 2019, fact that constitutes a regression to a subnational unit that has been gaining visibility through references such as the "Emotions Route" and the inclusion of the Delta Tourist Zone of the Americas in the promotion and dissemination of tourism in the State of Maranhão.

     

  • LILIAN DANIELE PANTOJA GONÇALVES
  • Socioenvironmental alterations caused by mineral exploration in the Garimpo de Caxias, municipality of Luís Domingues - MA

  • Data: 22/01/2018
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  • This study includes investigating the environmental and social changes in the area of gold extraction - Garimpo de Caxias - municipality of Luís Domingues-Ma. The discovery of gold in the northern portion of the State of Maranhão, in the region located between the Gurupi and Maracaçumé rivers, dates back to 1624, with the first incursions of European adventurers in Brazil. The search for gold spread beyond the Turiaçu and Maracaçumé river basins, which include the garimpos of Aurizona and Caxias, a study area. The garimpo of Caxias, is located 8 km from the headquarters of the municipality of Luís Domingues - MA, in the Northwest portion of the State. The gold potential was identified in 1934, but only in 1980 was the period of greatest exploration. According to Ramos (2005), the interference of man in nature with the purpose of exploring natural resources generates environmental problems, where soil and water are the first resources affected. These areas can be rendered unusable if there are trace element levels above those stipulated by current legislation, and these can remain in the environment for a long period. The study is based on authors such as: Ramos (2005), Fernandes; Alamino; Araujo (2014); Klein (2008); Pfeiffer (1993). As for the methodological framework, it is centered in the systemic methodology, as proposed by Bertrand, who understands the geosystem as a dynamic structure resulting from the interaction between the ecological potential, the biological exploration and the anthropic action, all of which are interrelated and Influence the functioning of the geosystems. The purpose of this study is to analyze the socioenvironmental consequences of gold extraction in the Garimpo do Caxias and the implications of mercury contamination. Thus, the objectives of the study are to identify the concentration of mercury in the liquid bodies of the surfaces of the garimpo lakes and the content of the mercury metal in water of the community well, which in view of the first results obtained already presented a considerable content of the chemical elemento in the bodies Liquids. For the identification of the characteristics, fragilities and triggering of erosive processes of the soil, morphological analysis of soils, density, soil porosity and particle size analysis will be carried out. Regarding the understanding of the social aspects and environmental perception of the community, it will be investigated through the application of semi-structured interviews reaching Community leaders, garimpeiros and health staff of the Municipality of Luís Domingues-Ma. Therefore, it is from the perspective of totality that understands The importance of this research, aiming to understand how the activity of mineral exploration has been manifested to the elements of nature from all this generated dynamics and its interrelations with the socioenvironmental aspects.

  • MARINALVA COSTA
  • STRUCTURE AND DRYING IN THE SOUTH PORTION OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF BEQUIMÃO-M AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CONSTRUCTION OF DAMS IN THE AURÁ RIVER

  • Data: 01/02/2018
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  • This research analyzed the phenomena of drought and drought in the southern portion of the municipality of Bequimão-MA and its relation with the construction of buses in the watershed of the river Aurá. In order to support the analysis, it was fundamental to characterize the geoenvironmental aspects of the mentioned municipality and, consequently of the studied area, to identify the occurrence of the mentioned phenomena and their generating causes and to detect the main changes in the landscape of the floodplains, associated to the occurrence of droughts and dried. This municipality is located in the North Meso-region and Microregion of the Maranhense Western Coast, being inserted in the hydrographic regions of the North-East Atlantic and Pericumã River. It belongs to two Conservation Units, namely: Environmental Protection Areas of the Maranhenses and Maranhense Reservoirs and to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Convention). The studied area has influence of the Jacioca, Mata and Mojó rivers - tributaries of the river Aurá, making limits with municipalities of the BaixadaMaranhense. Official data of the National Water Agency (ANA), through the Drought Monitor of the Brazilian Northeast, National Institute of Space Research - INPE, Cearense Foundation of Meteorology and Water Resources (FUNCEME), Center for Studies and Research in Engineering and Civil Defense CEPED), indicate that Bequimão is one of the municipalities in the state of Maranhão that presents the drought phenomenon. In addition to the official data, the population living in the surroundings of the floodplains says that this area "has been drying up" very fast, a fact that had not previously occurred. Conceptually, the phenomena of droughts and droughts present different understandings. For Castro (2003); Pires, Silva and Mendes (2010); Leivas (2014); Magellan (2016), such phenomena are a natural occurrence and differ because, from a meteorological point of view, droughts result from a prolonged period of drought resulting from below-average rainfall ratios and high evaporation rates , and that causes a sustained reduction of the existing water reserves, resulting in water scarcity. Droughts occur more frequently than droughts, but both produce reflections on hydrological reserves and result in distinct damage to the productive sector and the biodiversity of affected areas.The assumptions of the Geosystemic Approach together with the qualitative and quantitative methods made possible the analysis performed. Likewise, the Landscape as a category of analysis of Geography was important for the analysis and interpretation of the environmental changes observed in the studied area. The results obtained lead to the acceptance of the occurrence of prolonged drought periods, which are characterized in different typologies of droughts, especially in the years 2007, 2010, 2012 to 2015, when the rains were below the annual average (Climatological Norm Brazil 1961-1990) for the region and, the temperatures presented high indices (average 27 to 30.89 oC). The occurrence of such phenomena is related to variations in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) patterns on tropical oceans, which affect the position and intensity of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (TIC) on the Atlantic Ocean, as well as temperature anomalies observed in the Pacific Ocean, which result in years of La Niña and / or El Niño. The main changes observed in the landscapes of the studied area and adjacent areas are significant, mainly resulting from human intervention, such as the insertion of retreats, construction of fences and native pasture crops in areas of riparian forests, as well as numerous dams and buses in the area of flooded fields, among others. The theme discussed here demands complementary studies, subsidized by monitoring and evaluation of other indices, so that it is understood specifically the occurrences of drought and / or dryness in the studied area.

  • MARLY SILVA DE MORAIS
  • Environmental vulnerability. Erosive process and Cover and use of the land.

  • Data: 10/09/2018
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  • The research aims to analyze the socio-environmental impacts caused by erosive processes in the Bacanga State Park, located in the city of São Luís. The tools are used as thematrix of adapted environmental impact (SÁNCHEZ, 2013), interviews and mapping of the environmental vulnerability, considering the unstable morphodynamic means, vulnerable to the erosive processes from the proposal of (TRICART, 1977) and (CREPANI et al, 1996; TAGLIANI, 2009). The methodological procedures adopted consist of three stages, described as follows: The first one refers to the indirect approach through the bibliographical and cartographic survey; the second refers to the direct approach that was carried out through the field work; and the 3rd the work of the cabinet, involving the analyzes in the laboratory, analysis of the socio-environmental impact matrix, interviews and thematic mappings such as slope, hypsometry, soil, physical properties (soil density, particles and porosity), rainfall indexes, and coverage, resulting in the map of environmental vulnerability of Bacanga State Park, through geoprocessing using Arcgis 10.2 software. The partial results show a great relation between the slope classes, the soil types and their physical properties besides concentrated rainfall indicating the intensity of the action of geomorphological, pedogenetic agents and soil management in the structuring of the study environment. The map of current use and coverage is still under construction, a relevant parameter in the research, will show that the Conservation Unit in question has suffered several forms of social and environmental impacts, due to the urbanization that currently reaches 17.59% of the total area of the UC's causing damage to the environment.

  • PAULA RAMOS DE SOUSA
  • ANALYSIS OF ÁREAS DEGRADED BY EROSIVE PROCESSES IN THE LOW COURSE OF THE HYDROGRAPHIC BOWL OF ANIL RIVER, MARANHÃO ISLAND.

  • Data: 22/10/2018
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  • Soil erosion is one of the main types of land degradation in both rural and urban areas. It is a process that is closely related to the characteristics of the natural environment itself, but has been intensified through human activities. The water catchment area of the Anil river is extensively urbanized, presenting natural attributes that contribute to the degradation of the soil of this area. It is located in the northwest quadrant of the Island of Maranhão, totally inserted in the limits of the municipality of São Luís, possessing approximately 13,8 km of extension. The study area is part of this basin and focuses on its low course with an area of 23.26 km2. The research consisted of analyzing the linear erosive processes and the factors that contribute to the soil degradation in the low - water course of the Anil river basin in. The procedures used consisted of field research for information gathering, soil sample collection of the volumetric and deformed type; laboratory analysis of the physical properties of the soils that involved data production on the texture, soil density, particle density and total porosity of the samples collected; elaboration of thematic maps through geoprocessing techniques. All these research instruments were fundamental in the evaluation of the erodibility parameters, considering that in the Island of Maranhão the soils are highly friable and inconsolid, indicating the tendency of a natural fragility. The results showed that the area presents a geological predominance of the Itapecuru Group and mangrove areas. The elaboration of the simplified sketch of the soil classes together with the analysis of geomorphological aspects and morphological description of the area contributed to the characterization of the soils and indicated the occurrence of Quartzarenic Neosols and Latosols at collection points. The granulometric analysis revealed a high amount of the total sand fraction and predominance of sandy texture; soil and particle density showed a high degree of soil compaction and reduced percentages of total porosity due to low vegetation cover; the infiltration tests revealed a steady flow regime of soil water infiltration which contributes to surface runoff. Erosive features occur predominantly in areas of sparse hills, rectilinear slopes, sandy soils, and in slope classes that form a relief typology ranging from flat to undulating. The advance of deforestation has contributed to soil exposure and acceleration of linear erosive processes. Therefore, it is considered that studies with urban environmental approaches, mainly regarding the use and occupation of the soil and the impacts resulting from these actions without adequate planning are essential for the management of degraded areas.

  • SUELLEN CRISTINA DOS SANTOS APOLIANO PACHECO
  • PRODUCTION OF POPULAR HOUSING BY SELF-MANAGEMENT AND PRIVATE INITIATIVE AS A SPACE OF SOCIAL SUBJECTS IN ISLA DE MARANHÃO

  • Data: 15/12/2018
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  • This research intends to analyze the dynamics of production of the urban space with a focus for housing of social interest, through self - management and private initiative in the provision of housing for low income families in Maranhão Island. Historically, one of the main social and urban problems in Brazil is related to housing, given that one of the factors identified as a major obstacle to access to housing in Brazil is the lack of credit offered to low-income families. However, the population has always created access alternatives to it, supplying the need to guarantee survival, due to the precarious performance of the State in promoting means for the acquisition of the home. It is intended to discuss the housing policies implemented by the State in serving the lower income population and the contradictions existing in the capitalist production of urban space. The foundations of this research are based on dialectical historical materialism, a method of interpretation of reality, which articulates the contradictions and conflicts of the unequal production of space. Thus, housing policies of social interest are discussed through programs aimed at the popular classes, especially the Programs Solidary Credit, My House My Life - business and My House My Life - Entities, objects of this study. To understand the proposed objectives, the work proposes to investigate two housing complexes (João do Vale, in São Luís; Novo Horizonte, em Paço do Lumiar), aimed at the low income population. As a focus of this research is the social housing, it was possible to consider and evaluate the satisfaction of the residents in the constructed spaces, the quality of the houses, the services available in the groups as well as the degree of contentment of the residents with their housing complexes. However, 27 semi-structured questionnaires were applied in the João do Vale residential, built through self-management, the first set being analyzed and 26 questionnaires applied in the set ovo Horizonte, which is located on the outskirts of the city. Both sets are devoid of urban infrastructure and have precarious urban services and facilities available in these spaces. Thus, it is possible to perceive the residents' dissatisfaction with the structure of the whole and the provision of public services by the competent authorities. However, there is a sense of satisfaction on the part of the residents that they have acquired the dream of home ownership.

     

     

  • THAIS AGUIAR FRANÇA
  • Analysis Temporal Space of the Coast Line, Mangrove Areas and Apicuns of the Municipality of Raposa / Ma

  • Data: 04/12/2018
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  • The impacts generated by the natural dynamics of coastal areas are presented through the development and retrogradation. Australian studies show the importance of research on indicators. These studies recently proposed analyzing the mangrove and a salt flat ecosystem as a means to monitor changes in coastal environments as indicators of global warming, climate change, storm effects, sea level changes, pollution rates and sedimentation. coastal change, the Municipality of Raposa, is characterized by an intense process of alteration in the natural landscape and high vulnerability and coastal dynamics affected by several natural factors, but which in recent years has been intensified by anthropic action. The present research has the general objective of analyzing the changes in the coastline, mangroves and salt flats in the municipality of Raposa, using geoprocessing techniques. The fundamentals of this research are based on the systemic approach to the understanding of landscape dynamics and subsequent analysis of the area in an integrated vision, focusing in this way its particularities, potentialities, limitations and their interrelations with the environmental and social components the landscape. In order to analyze the spatial-temporal evolution of the mangrove and salt flat ecosystem, the algebra mapping process was performed, and for the identification of the sectors in erosion and progression, later a series of polygons were generated in order to show the regions of occurrence of erosion and deposition through the subtraction of polygons. Although the municipality still has large mangrove areas preserved, some areas had the vegetation suppressed as a result of the anthropic tensor through the process of urbanization and disorderly occupation of the municipality. During the analyzed period there were no variations of the salt flat feature, remaining in shape during the analyzed years, with small fringe changes, characterizing this feature as stable. From the explanation of these landscape units as indicators of coastal changes, it can be affirmed that of the indicators used to analyze the dynamics of the study area, the salt flat ecosystem was the only one that remained stable throughout the analyzed period.

2017
Descrição
  • GISSELLY POLIANA SANTOS MUNIZ
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    Ecotourism in Carolina-Maranhão: what is this practice?

  • Data: 13/11/2017
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  • The geographic studies on Tourism seek to analyze the social, political and economic relevance of this activity in recent times, it is emphasized that the activity allows the economic development of regions, besides being a human phenomenon established by social and cultural standards that express the experience of new experiences. One segment that has been widely disseminated is Ecotourism, understood as a tourism activity that uses natural and cultural heritage, encourages its conservation and seeks the formation of an environmental conscience through the interpretation of the environment, promoting the well-being of the populations. In this context, the municipality of Carolina, State of Maranhão, became part of the ecotourism itineraries established by the State Government with the launching of the Tourism Strategic Plan (Major Plan 2000-2010), having as main attractions waterfalls and the National Park of Chapada das Mesas, created in 2005 and that leveraged tourism in the municipality. In view of this situation, it is worth noting that the municipality has been one of the main tourist promotion units, but it involves problems related to the organization of the activity, which has had direct impacts on the conservation of natural and cultural environments, as well as conflicts between different representations involved in the activity. Through the above the objective of this research is to analyze the tourist use in Carolina-MA. In addition, the specific objectives are: to understand the extent to which tourism has changed the municipal territory; to identify the conceptions and representations of those involved in tourism, as to the necessary elements in the tourist and practical implementation of Ecotourism; Identify existing conflicts arising from the activity; and indicate the Acceptable Limit of Exchange - LAC. The results revealed that the tourist appropriation is constituted in a process without criteria for spatial planning; conflicts of interest among several actors involved in the activity; intensive use of natural resources; absence of specific studies on the tourist activity and its relation with use of the environment.

  • JUSCINALDO GOES ALMEIDA
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    THE FIGHT IN THE EARTH AGAINST THE EXPANSION OF SOYBEANS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF BREJO - MA

  • Orientador : JOSÉ SAMPAIO DE MATTOS JÚNIOR
  • Data: 08/11/2017
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  • This research aimed to analyze the forms of peasant mobilization for permanence on the land in front of the implantation of soy by so-called gauchos in the municipality of Brejo, located in the Microregion of Chapadinha, east of Maranhão. The methodological approach that guided the present investigation was the dialectical method, having as main procedures: survey and analysis of bibliographic material already produced on the subject and area of study, as well as the concepts / categories that ground the work, namely: territory and conflict; obtaining statistical information on the planted area and quantity produced with soybean, cassava and rice from 1990 to 2015 referring to the state of Maranhão and the Microregion of Chapadinha in the SIDRA database of IBGE; survey of occurrences of land conflicts, rural settlements projects and remaining communities of certified quilombos in the Microregion of Chapadinha and, specifically, in the municipality of Brejo through the database of CPT, INCRA and Fundação Cultural Palmares; fieldwork in villages in Brejo and also in municipal institutions such as SINTRAF and the Diocese from April to June 2017. Research was also carried out in organs in São Luís, like CPT and INCRA. Through the study on canvas it was verified that the actions of struggle for the land are related to the mobilization for the creation of settlements of agrarian reform; the activation of specific ethnic identities, as remnants of quilombos. The struggle of those self-proclaimed heirs for recognition as legitimate owners of the land and the continuity of craftsmanship, even with the scarcity of raw materials brought about by the transformation of the plots into soya fields, is also emphasized. However, it is also important to take into account the quieter forms of resistance expressed in the maintenance of a specific way of life, in spite of all the adversities brought by the expansion of agribusiness into the peasant territory.

     

  • LAÉCIO DA SILVA DUTRA


  • PUBLIC MARKET: function, form and transformation in the urban space, in the region of Itaqui - Bacanga, São Luís (MA)

  • Data: 18/12/2017
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  • This work analyzes the way in which the study of the market is relevant to geographic science, considering that it is concerned with the issues related to the elements of urban space, understood through the city centers, or in its peripheral areas. With the accelerated growth of the city, this is increasingly filled with complexity, tied to various urban problems that directly interfere with the way of life of society. In view of this issue, the Public Market: function, form and transformation in the urban space, in the region of Itaqui - Bacanga, São Luís (MA), stands out. The main objective of this study was to analyze the public markets of popular urbanization neighborhoods, Guardian Angel and Embratel Village, in their social and structural aspects, as well as their transformations. The method of approach used is the dialectic, because through this it is possible to understand the city space, which has several interrelations between society, physical space and built space. The methodological procedures developed were systematic observations, applications of forms with semi-structured questions with the workers, check list and microbiological analysis of foods in the Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Chemical Technology, Food and Water Quality Control Program, PCQA/UFMA - Federal University of Maranhão. It can be considered as results, that the process of accelerated urbanization boosted the formation of the study area, adding populations that started to need elements of infrastructure, the public markets, which are currently in infrastructural and hygienic- unhealthy health; due to the agglomerations and lack of planning, territorialities, which along with the markets expanded absent from public policies directed to the improvement of these urban conditions, were thus formed in its surroundings. Thus, it is concluded that the public markets under study in the region Itaqui-Bacanga, need concrete policies and projects that allow for the restructuring of these.

  • MARLON MARCOS PEREIRA DE SOUSA
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     RELIGIOUS FESTIVAL OF CÍRIO DE NAZARÉ: FAITH PROPAGATION AND GEOSYMBOLISM IN THE CITY OF SÃO LUIS (MA).

  • Data: 21/08/2017
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  • The link between space and religion provides rich material for reflection in Geography (CORREA, 2002). Thus, in analyzing the Feast of the Círio de Nazaré, we can observe the possible transformations in the urban space in the Cohatrac neighborhood, in the city of São Luís, knowing that this, as object of study of cultural geography, can always be constructed by the individual, with countless purposes. Celebrated more than two centuries ago in the city of Belém in the state of Pará, and for more than two decades in the city of São Luís (MA), the Círio represents an important religious festival, of Portuguese root, consisting of a Catholic celebration that reveres the Figure of Mary of Nazareth, considered the mother of Jesus Christ, and in São Luis, lives a moment of great visibility acquired over the last years. The purpose of this paper is to understand, based on a cultural approach to Geography, the cultural-religious importance of the Feast of the Círio de Nazaré for the City of São Luís, besides analyzing the spatial dimension of the symbolic itineraries. The method used was Participant Observation, through the direct, frequent and prolonged contact of the researcher with the social actors, being thus the researcher himself the research instrument, including the use of essentially qualitative research techniques. Thus a detailed research, survey and bibliographic selection, fieldwork, open interviews and production of a field diary describing all the perceptions of the moments were carried out. Finally, based on the observations made, we can affirm that in the festive period, the Cohatrac neighborhood is transformed, the urban dynamics gain a new orientation, with an intense flow of devotees and visitors, that extends throughout the celebration and acquires strength in the Symbolic itineraries, when (re) organizing space and changing urban everyday life, (re) creating forms and (re) functionalizing them to meet the faithful.

  • RONALDO BARROS SODRE
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    THE AGRARIAN MARANHÃO: dynamics and territorial conflicts

  • Data: 15/09/2017
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  • The complexity ways acquired through the Brazilian agricultural matter over its historical journey have created some confliting expressions that give rise to the struggle in the field where the agricultural conflict are represented by this statement. In the power relations the struggles on/by territory protect distinct and rational conflicts that generate possibilities for the ones who are involved, modifying the geographical space through the dynamic lands. The struggles emphasize the State’s institucional inability at the time they also show the ability of the poorest in search of their rights for the struggle that points paths to citizenship. Although the big territorial extension in Brazil and the social and economical modifications of the last few decades, the agrarian conflicts keep being significant under the surveillance of the property pattern of the land. In Maranhão, State with the most rural population of the country, they embrace a high number of peasant families that fight to go back/remain in the land, even with all the imposed barriers through the capital in different moments on history. By means of this work we aim to analyze the territorial conflicts as a structural part of elements that consider the maranhense agrarian question on the period of 2001 to 2015, we also seek to identify the potentially conflicting areas in Maranhão to call attention to the progress of the peasant lands, from the new/old relations of labour field. To achieve the intended objectives, we first and foremost raised, analyzed and discussed benchmarks that discuss land (and its process), agrarian matter, violence, agricultural conflict, among others. We also raised various datas that compose this paper, as well as making maps, taking into regard the Critical Geographic Cartography. As results we point out that the struggles are paradoxical elements on the Brazilian agrarian question, creators of agrarian development and territorial dinamics. Since the beginning of XXI century, the State of Maranhão measure the biggest numbers of struggle conflicts by land in the country. Although they are diffused all over the State, it is in the Eastern region, old occupation area and expansion of agricultural business that the struggles reach the biggest numbers.

     

     

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